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在最近一期的经济学家杂志上看到一篇有关中国性教育的文章,引起了我的好奇,于是抽时间将全文译成了中文。這个翻译过程把握尺度艰难,千方百计地想把英文变成地道的中文,换句话说就是让西方人说出地道的中国话,而不是给读者所谓西方式的中文译文。难度颇大,有心进行了尝试。现将全文及译文提供给诸位一同分享两种语言带来的快感。

一直以来,我在不停的呼吁中国人学习外语同本地人学习母语的方法是截然不同的。读了很多人们介绍的有关学习外语的方法,但作为中国人还是觉得那些说法都不适合中国人学习。根据本人多年的摸索发现中国人学习英文的快捷也是行之有效的方法就是中英文对照学习可以达到事倍功半的效果。而让我想起在我毕业时曾有幸聆听过已故中国英语教学界泰斗级人物“许孟雄”先生的演讲,他在谈到中国人应该如何学习英语,给我印象最深的就是他说当年他就是左手拿着中文本,右手拿着英文本一句一句对照学的,這种方法为他一生学习英文奠定了坚实的基础。


希望大家不要忘记,我们母语不是英文,无论我们学得再好也比不了本地出生母语讲英文的人。文化的迥然不同带给我们的是理解和表达的障碍。所谓文化并不单纯指的是书本的知识,更重要的是那些涉及到方方面面人文和习俗。我们不是在這种环境下长大的你根本就不可能理解当地社会本质。就像你听相声会对其中逗哏的句子引发哄堂大笑,而你英文学得再好也理解不了当地人捧怀大笑的真谛。而那些强调中国人学习英语要完全在西人的环境中才能学到地道的英文,本人不敢苟同。原因还是文化背景,成长环境不同造就的。即便是当地出生的中国二代移民甚至三代、甚至四代移民的后裔,他们的发音虽酷似西人,但还是很难全方位地融入到西人圈子中。我常常把西人看成是“外星人” 他们的所有思维都和中国人不同。中国的文化博大精深,太深奥了,所以外国人常把中国文化说成是 “Confusious” 再急了他们就把中国文化说成是”confusion”其本意就是他们都觉得混乱。最突出的就是中国易经可谓中国哲学的最高境界,西方文化只有麦当劳和汉堡王,他们怎么会理解得了呢?两种文化的差异之大可谓天壤之别。所以说,不要去追求所谓模仿西方人的发音,误认为只要说出的英文发音像本地人就证明自己的英文学好了,其实這是一种误导。我们应该清醒地认识到作为中国人学习英文最大的优势就是中英文互译,尤其是你们这些留学生,来到西方第一语言是英文的国度,就算這几年什么都没学好,起码要在中英文互译上有所建树也不辜负父母花重金栽培。不然将来回国有机会你的上司让你现场做个翻译,结果结结巴巴,那场面才真的让你尴尬呐。所以,中国人学习英文就要从中英文互译下手,才能有优势,而這种优势是第一语言讲英文的人们所不具备的。


目前还有一种误导就是几乎每个中国人都去追求雅思,托福。当然我并不反对学生们为了升学努力去通过這两种考试,可学好英文完全不是這两种考试都是满分就可以达到的目的。现在的应试教育坑害了无数的学子,中国就是全球最好的负面典范。为什么這么说呢?因为,中国太注重考试了,什么4级6级之类的,可那些通过了考试还拿到证书的人们又有几个可以从容不迫地说出地道英文呢?可谓寥寥无几。原因就是死读书,害死人!中国人学习英语最难的也是最大的障碍就是不知道如何将自己的语言逻辑思维在瞬间换成英文的思维方式。所以才会出现张口结舌的尴尬境遇。如果能把两种语言有机的融合起来,活学活用就会真正将英文学地道,才能达到学好英文事倍功半的效果。


这些只是我个人的感触,希望起到抛砖引玉的效果。


下面还是让我们一起来分享這篇谈论有关性教育的文章。相信其中的写作手法对同学们日后的英文写作颇有益处。

由于时间紧,加上本人水平有限,其中错译或漏译之处在所难免,希望朋友们批评指正。



Sex education 性教育
Dream of the bed chamber 卧室里的梦
China is in the midst of a sexual revolution. Time to start educating the young 中国正处在性革命的征途中,是到了开始对年轻一代进行性教育的时候了。

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Nov 21st 2015 | BEIJING

“SEX, sex, sexual intercourse, penis, penis, vagina.” More than 150 undergraduates are sitting in a lecture hall at China Agricultural University in Beijing, shouting loudly. Many are sexually active, or soon will be. Yet for most it is the first sex education class they have attended.


在北京农业大学的一间讲课厅中正围坐着150多名大学生,他们高声大喊性,性,性交,男生殖器,男生殖器,女生殖器“。這当中有很多都是或即将成为推动性开放的活跃分子。然而,对于极大多数的学生们来说还是头一次来参加性教育的课程。

Their instructor hopes that shouting such words will help youngsters talk more openly about sex. Lu Zhongbao, a 24-year-old forestry student, says he was told as a child that he “emerged from a rock”. When he started having sex with his university girlfriend he had little idea about contraception. This evening he arrived an hour early armed with another question: will masturbating damage his health?

他们的指导教师希望如此大声地将这些词喊出来会有助于年轻人更公开地谈论有关性的问题。一位24岁林业系名叫鲁中宝(音译)的学生讲从小大人们就跟他讲他是从 石头缝儿里蹦出来的。他第一次同他女朋友发生性关系时,根本就不知道避孕。今晚他提前一个小时到场带着另外一个疑问就是手淫会不会伤害身体

It is not just China’s economy that has loosened up since 1979. The country is in the midst of a sexual revolution. A 2012 study found that more than 70% of Chinese people have sex before marriage. Other polls put that figure lower but consistently indicate that over the past 30 years, more young Chinese are doing it, with more partners, at a younger age. But a lack of sex education means that many are not protecting themselves, resulting in soaring abortion rates and a rise in sexually transmitted diseases.

1979以来不只是中国的经济走向了蓬勃发展的道路。中国如今正处在性革命的征途中。一项在2012年的调研揭示出70%多的中国人婚前都发生过性行为。其它一些问卷调查虽将這一数字降得更低,但在过去30多年不间断调查问卷中显示更多的中国年轻人在更小的年龄时就有了多个性伙伴儿。但由于缺乏性方面的教育意味着许多人无法自我保护,结果导致堕胎率和性传染疾病直线上升

The Communist Party has stuck its nose into people’s bedrooms for 30 years through its harsh family-planning policies. Yet taboos on sex before marriage prevailed, the result of paternalistic—not religious—values about female chastity, with a dose of Communist asceticism thrown in. Pre-marital sex fell foul of a range of laws, including the catch-all charge of “hooliganism”, only scrapped in 1997.

30年来,中共通过计划生育政策紧盯着人民的私生活。而禁止人们婚前发生性关系也算是蔚然成风,结果就是有关女人贞洁的价值观形成了家长式作风,而非宗教的方式,其中掺杂些共产禁欲的因素。婚前性行为同当时的法律规范格格不入,一度曾被认为婚前性行为就是耍流氓,会被起诉,直到1997年这条法律才被废除。

The social climate remains chilly. Most news items about sex involve scandals or crimes. Schools ban pupils from dating and many deploy “morality patrols” to root out flirting or frolicking couples. Sex outside wedlock is not illegal but children born to unmarried mothers face obstacles obtaining a hukou, or household residency, that entitles them to subsidised education and welfare. Yet with greater freedom from their parents, more money and increasing exposure to permissive influences from abroad, China’s youth are clearly separating sex from procreation.

社会大环境依旧严酷。大多数有关性方面的新闻报道都是与丑闻或犯罪相连。学校禁止学生约会,甚至还部署了所谓道德巡逻队专门用来清除苟且偷欢的男女们。虽说现在婚外性行为不算违法了,可对于那些未婚生育的母亲们来说面临的障碍就是上不上户口或不能获得居住权,因为没有户口或居住权她们就无法享受教育补贴和社会救济。然而,随着从父母那儿获得更多的自由,有了更多的钱以及受来自国外与日俱增的两性关系放纵的影响,如今的年轻一代正在清楚地将性爱与生儿育女分离开来。

Education on the subject is compulsory in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan—societies that have some cultural similarities with China. But most Chinese schools teach only basic anatomy.

性教育在日本、韩国和台湾是必修课-这些地方的社会体系有着同中国相似的文化。可在中国大多数学校教的都只是基本的解剖学知识。

This is not entirely for lack of trying. Pilot campaigns in Shanghai and Beijing schools in the 1980s were incorporated into a nationwide programme in 1988 but it was never implemented. In 2008 the Ministry of Education included sex education in the national health and hygiene curriculum. The barriers are not just prudery. Like football, fashion and other teenage pastimes, sex (and learning about it) is seen as a distraction from studies. “Sex is not an exam subject,” says Sheng Yingyi, a 21-year-old student.

这不完全是因为缺乏尝试的问题。实际上80年代在北京和上海的一些学校里就开始了初步尝试,到1988年在全国铺开,可从来就没能得到贯彻执行。2008年教育部要求将性教育纳入全国健康和卫生课程中。障碍不仅是拘谨的问题,就像足球、时尚和其它青少年们的娱乐一样,学习有关性方面的知识会被认为是影响正当学业的邪门歪道。一位21岁的学生讲有关性的课程从来不被列为考试项目

Where classes happen, most students are merely given a textbook. “Happy Middle School Students”, written for 12- to 15-year-olds in 2006 and still widely used, refers to sperm meeting egg without describing the mechanics of intercourse. A more explicit volume for primary-school pupils published in 2011, which did explain how sperm were delivered, was criticised for being pornographic.

2006年,无论哪里开性教育的课程,都只是给学生一本印着快乐中学生的教科书,這本书是提供给年龄在12-15岁孩子们的,如今仍然被广泛应用。书里讲述的都是些精子遇卵子的内容,可从来都没有任何有关性交过程的描述。2011年出版的小学性教育课本中有了更多的描述,揭示了精子是如何传递的,后来竟被炮轰成黄色刊物。

The dominant message is to abstain. A 2013 review by UNESCO and Beijing Forestry University noted the prevalence of “terror-based” sex education, with content largely focused on the horrors of pregnancy, abortion and HIV. Earlier this month a university in Xi’an in central China ran a course entitled “No Regrets Youth” where students received a “commitment card”, essentially a pledge to remain a virgin until marriage.

主要信息被禁止。2013年世界教科文组织和北京林业大学共同探讨发现了这种所谓性教育的恐怖根基内容主要集中在怀孕、堕胎和艾滋病的恐惧问题上。這个月的月初,在位于中国中部西安的一所大学开设了一门课名为无怨无悔的年轻一代那里的大学生们都收到一张所谓承诺卡,主要是要发誓守节到婚前.

We need to talk 我们需要谈一谈!

There is almost no discussion in Chinese schools about love, communication or trust, how to say no or to deal with harassment or abuse. Homosexuality is not discussed, and Chinese parents rarely talk with their children about sex. Peng Xiaohui of Central China Normal University, who runs sex-education classes (including the one at China Agricultural University), had excrement thrown at him last year because of the work he does. Several Chinese and foreign NGOs have tried to fill the gap, but many are now wary after the month-long detention this year of five feminists who had launched a campaign against sexual harassment. Most Chinese youths find out about sex from the internet and online pornography.

几乎在中国的学校中你找不到有关讨论爱、交流和诚信的话题,也不知道如何对骚扰和侵害说不字,也不知道如何去面对。没有人去讨论有关同性恋的问题,中国的父母们很少跟自己的孩子们谈论性的话题。华中师范大学的彭晓辉是开办性教育课程的指导教师(包括在中国农业大学开办的那个课程)正是因为他开办了這个课程去年就曾遭遇有人向他扔屎。有些中国和外国的民间机构曾试图填补這一空白,但遇到在今年由五个妇女发起的反性骚扰抗议中她们遭长达一个月的拘禁后,这些机构大都变得小心谨慎了。绝大多数中国的年轻人是从网络和在线黄色网站了解到有关性方面知识的。

That does not work well. Because of the mismatch between lust and learning, around a quarter of all sexually active women under 24 get pregnant by mistake. Half of them do not use prophylactics, some because they know little about them, others because of insufficient access.

无法把事情办好是因为诱惑和了解相抵触造成的,在所有24岁以下有性行为的妇女中1/4的人是无意怀孕的。她们中有一半人不用避孕套,有些是因为她们不懂這方面的知识,另外一些人是因为根本就没有足够的资源去了解。

The pill is not widely used in China, even by married women. The government encourages the use of intra-uterine devices which provide less chance of human error. Until last year advertising condoms on television was banned (abortion, by contrast, is widely promoted). Convenience stores sell condoms, but they are not always available near college campuses.

避孕药在中国并不被广泛应用,即便是已婚妇女也不用。政府鼓励妇女用避孕环這样会降低人为犯错误的机率。电视上做避孕套的广告一直是被禁的直到去年才被允许。便利店开始卖避孕套,可在大学校园附近还是不容易买到。

Those who do use prophylactics often use them wrongly: a 2014 study found that a quarter of under-17s who got pregnant had used some form of birth control. There is also a flourishing trade in “counterfeit condoms”, shoddily made sheaths being passed off as popular name brands. As a result sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise; 91% of new HIV cases are from sexual contact.

那些用了避孕套的常常也是使用不当:2014年的一项调查中揭示了 17岁以下怀孕的年轻女性中有1/4 是因为采用了控制生育周期的方式。假避孕套在中国泛滥疑似豆腐渣工程一样的盗用知名品牌,结果造成了性传染病攀升;新出现的艾滋病案例中91%都是因为性接触传染的。

Dirty secrets 肮脏的秘密

It is hardly surprising that the abortion rate is so high. The one-child policy has made termination a normal phenomenon. Most clinics, private or state, put a premium on speed and offer no advice on how to avoid getting pregnant again. So repeat abortions are common: a study of nearly 80,000 Chinese women who terminated pregnancies in 2013, published in October by the Lancet, a British journal, found that 37% were doing so for the second time, and 29% for a third time or more. Unmarried women account for a rising share of these—and are a significant reason why, after an extended period of decline, terminations have been increasing in number since 2003.

堕胎率如此之高不足为奇。独生子女政策扼杀了正常人类伦理。无论是私人还是国有的诊所都惟利是图且不提供有关如何再度免于怀孕的咨询。所以反复堕胎司空见惯。2013年的一项调查显示有近8万做堕胎的中国妇女中就有37%是第二次堕胎了,而29%甚至是第三次或更多次的堕胎。这项调查刊登在今年10月份的英国著名医学杂志Lancet”上。虽说之后一段时间有所下降,但自从2003年以来堕胎人数一直是成上升趋势,也成为未婚妇女堕胎数量上升的重要原因。

Although China has no national system for counting abortions (official statistics include only state facilities), a researcher from the National Health and Family Planning Commission reckons there could be 13m terminations or more a year, a figure widely quoted in state media. But Marie Stopes, an international reproductive-health agency, reckons that figure could be as high as 40m, given domestic sales for pharmaceutical companies selling drugs used in terminations. If that number is correct, around half of all abortions worldwide are in China. The high number of terminations is in marked contrast to the low birth rate. If Marie Stopes is correct, 2.5 babies are aborted in China for every one born, compared with about two live births per termination in Russia and five births to one abortion in America. Even using the widely cited 13m figure, there are nearly as many abortions as births in China each year. That, and not frank talk about sex, is China’s shame.

由于中国没有国家系统来统计堕胎数量(官方提供的数据包括的只是国有资源)一位来自国家健康和计划生育委员会的研究员表示一年要有一千三百万或更多的妇女堕胎,這个数字被国家媒体广泛引用。但一位来自国际生育健康机构的玛丽斯图女士根据中国医药公司销售堕胎药的数量来判断认为這个数字应该在四千万。如果這个数字是对的话,中国的堕胎数量占了全球的一半儿。高堕胎数同低生育率形成了鲜明的对比。如果玛丽斯图的判断是对的话,同俄国相比,中国要堕掉2.5个宝宝才能换来一个新生儿,而俄国是2个宝宝换来一个堕胎,而美国是5个新生儿换来一个堕胎。即便广泛使用的一千三百万的数字是对的话,每年中国的堕胎数字接近新生儿的出生比例。不坦率地谈论有关性的问题是中国的耻辱。

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