机器的偏见

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为什么我们需要计算机?因为它快速、准确。普通人对计算机给出的结果都是深信不疑的。如果你到银行的机器上去存款,结果却错了,那肯定是背后的人在捣鬼,机器怎么会算错呢!

最近看到一篇文章说,美国某机构用计算机搞选美比赛,结果44个获奖者中有36个白人;由此暗示,机器也会有种族歧视。

前几天看见普京的发言译文,说谁掌握了人工智能的技术,谁就能称霸全球;还说,俄罗斯愿意与全球人分享这一技术,正如同分享核技术一样。这不是自相矛盾吗,要称霸还能全球分享?

让我们看看现在被人类热捧的人工智能到底是何方神圣。对AI的定义,有许多种不同观点。一是说能够像人一样思考;但是懂点数学的人都知道,这是不可能实现的:机器算不了无穷大的量,数学本身也不行,只有人才能想像。机器也不懂得去发现什么,如果没有人告诉它做什么的话。

二是说能替人工作就行。对于简单的重复性工作,这很容易办到。不需打字,根据声音、图像,自动生成文档也可以办到。工程学的目的,就是要解决实际问题,算不上智能,只不过是技巧而已。

三是说能学习,越来越聪明;因为其速度极快,很快就能比人类更聪明,从而统治人类。我们看看机器学习领域里的专家们是怎么干的:把一切信息(文本、图像、声音)数值化,找出能够描述其特征的统计量(称为特征值),再按照某个阀值去分类(比如,把黑人分类成大猩猩);然后,定义一个正确率,再找一堆数据去做实验,用简单函数去搞回归分析。

用统计方法去搞模式识别,不求甚解还行。那些编程者自行设定的特征值,要说没有偏见,鬼都不信。给每个单词设定一个情感分数,依据是什么?一句话的意义,可以用一组数值表示出来吗?鸟类的语言,我们怎么翻译成人类能懂的语言?这绝不是统计方法能够做到的。

不错,我们的数据量在增长,已经超出了我们的处理能力,因此需要机器;可事实是,自然及其所包含的信息永远都在那里,根本不需要人类的处理!只不过是人类的贪心膨胀了而已。作为一个人,在衣食住行有了保障之后,就应该只去感悟,而不是去欺骗和称霸。

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