Jason Wang, Best Ottawa GMAT Tutor http://jasonwangto.wixsite.com/gmat

加拿大最大英语学习网络社区群主, 资深GMAT/GRE顶级商学院申请辅导专家

2017年GMAT逻辑新题型解析:因果倒置选项多元化

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2017年的GMAT考试出题方面的一个变化趋势,就是关于因果倒置选项出现多元化的现象。

因果倒置的选项对大部分同学来讲,尤其是初期备考的同学来讲相对陌生,因为这一类真题出现的数量少一点。

下面通过这道题和大家看一下选项出现的形式,这道题摘自于GMAT OG2016。(题目略长)

5. People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not. It has been found that “doing good”, a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain’s nature opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people’s lives.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the force of the evidence given as support for the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity?

A.People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than other to characterize the work they do for aligning as “doing good”.

B.Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such level are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

C.There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

D.People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

E.Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runner while running.

我们简单地对这道题做一个讲解,说一下整体逻辑思路。

整篇文章不难理解,文章内容大体的意思是人们愿意去参加一些帮助其他人的好事,那么帮助他人会释放出来恩多芬,恩多芬的释放让人感到可以延长寿命。

那么总体来讲文章表达了一种逻辑思路,就是帮助他人参加volunteer的工作,可以延长寿命。

题干的要求也非常鲜明,让你去削弱得出结论的力度,也就是说文章结论是帮助他人可以延长寿命。

既然是削弱的话,也就是找到选项说明帮助他人是不能够达到延长寿命的目的的这样一个因果关系链的削弱。

在我们的选项中,ABCDE五个选项里,答案应该是D选项。我们来着重看一下D选项为什么能够起到削弱的效果。

D选项说人们是不会去参与volunteer的工作,除非他们的身体状况非常好。 换句话说,人们正是因为身体比较好,才更容易去帮助他人,那么很显然这跟文章中的因推果的关系进行一个倒置。

文章中说帮助他人所以身体健康,而这个选项说的是,因为身体健康才倾向于帮助别人。

那么这样的一种因果倒置的呈现形式直接对文章原有的逻辑因果进行了反驳。这就是在GMAT考试中出现的因果倒置的形式。

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Jason Wang   MBA PMP CFA FRM

Schulich商学院MBA, 加拿大主要银行风险管理经理,前新东方GMAT/GRE、IELTS教师,资深GMAT/GRE、IELTS 考试和顶尖商学院申请辅导专家

加拿大最大英语学习讨论群群主

微信:jack53717

个人网站: http://jasonwangto.wixsite.com/gmat

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