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这是一篇刚刚发表在Economist”经济学家”杂志上有关描述现今中国控制吸毒所采用新招术的文章。作者写作手法简练但结构错落,往往是把话说一半,而另一半让读者回味深思,尤其是在表达方面同中国人的思维截然不同。选此篇也是为了充分说明中英两种语言在互译时的不同,我尽量将原文翻得更加适合中国人的表达方式也更符合中文表达习惯。由于时间仓促加之本人水平有限,错译,漏译等问题在所难免,希望诸位谅解并多指教!

 

Rehabilitating drug users 帮助吸毒者恢复健康

 

Kicking the habit 戒掉这一习惯

A more liberal approach to drug addiction gains support from Beijing

北京方面支持采用更宽松方式帮助吸毒者戒掉毒隐

Sep 15th 2012 | DUYUN, GUIYANG AND ZUNYI, GUIZHOU PROVINCE | from the print edition

 

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AS the lunch break began one recent Wednesday at a packaging plant in the south-western city of Zunyi, dozens of employees made their way upstairs from the factory floor. Most walked past the ping-pong tables in the recreation area and straight on to the staff canteen. But several of them, including 31-year-old Wang Yiping, stopped briefly at the company’s dispensary, reaching through a grill for a small plastic cup, and gulped a carefully measured dose of methadone.

在中国西南城市遵义的一个包装厂周三中午随着人们午休成群结队的工人们有续地走向厂楼梯。大部分人都会经过娱乐区摆放的乒乓球台径直朝员工食堂走去,而其中有几个人包括现年31岁的王立平却在公司的医务室短暂地停留了一下伸手从隔栏里取出一个小的塑料杯将精心量好的毒品替代品美沙酮一饮而进。

 

The privately owned factory is one of nearly 100 Guizhou enterprises taking part in the Sunshine Project, an innovative drug-rehabilitation programme run by the narcotics bureau of the provincial police department.

这家工厂为私营企业,是参与阳光计划近百家企业中的一个。所谓阳光计划就是具有创造性的戒毒康复计划,该计划是由省警察厅毒品管制局发起的。

 

Methadone has been used in China for several years but, with its emphasis on employment rather than incarceration, humane rather than punitive treatment, and voluntary rather than compulsory participation, the Sunshine Project marks a departure from China’s traditionally stern approach to drug users. Since launching the project last year, Guizhou police officials claim to have achieved impressive reductions in the rates of crime and HIV infection among drug users. They also claim that relapse rates for the province’s recovering addicts are now far below national averages.

 在本着强调安置吸毒人员就业而非监禁,本着人道而非惩罚对待,以自愿而非强制性参加为原则,美沙酮的使用在中国已经有多年。阳光计划实际上与中国以往一贯采用的严厉惩治吸毒者的方式迥然不同。从去年发起这项计划以来,贵州警察官员们表示吸毒群体中犯罪率和艾滋病毒感染率已大幅度降低,成绩卓著,让人印象深刻。同时他们还表示省内正在进行康复治疗的瘾君子们其病情复发率低于目前全国平均值

 

All this has been enough to attract the attention and support of senior leaders in Beijing, including the minister for public security, Meng Jianzhu, who last year praised the Sunshine Project as an experiment that the whole country should study.

所有取得的这些成就全然吸引了北京高层领导们的注意,也为此得到了相应的支持,包括公安部长孟建柱,他在去年还称赞阳光计划并作为试点要求全国都应该效仿和学习。

 

Moments after taking her methadone, Ms Wang (who did not want her real name used) said she has struggled with heroin addiction for nine years. After several stints in jail and forced-treatment centres, and many attempts to give up, she said she had now kept off heroin for four months and dared to hope for the first time that she might turn her life around.

在刚服用了美沙酮后片刻,王小姐(她本人不愿透露其真实姓名)讲她已经同海洛因引发的毒瘾拼争了9年,曾数次蹲监狱并被强制送往戒毒中心戒毒,很多次都想放弃。她说到目前为止她已经4个月都没碰海洛因了,这是头一次敢奢望或许从此会改变她整个人生。

 

“Until recently I thought that at my age and with my drug problem, my life was ruined and that I would never find a husband. Who would want me?” she asked. “But now I think I might still have a chance.”

她说“如今到了我这个年龄才认识到毒品问题,我的生活曾一度被彻底毁掉,我从来就没打算结婚,谁会找我呢?可现在看来我或许还是有机会成个家的。”

 

At the very least, she now has a job, a basic income, and a treatment plan that involves her family and medical professionals instead of prison guards. In addition to the nurses who dispense her methadone, professional counsellors are also available to meet with her.

最起码她现在有份工作,有基本收入和一项没有监狱看守而只有她家人和专业医护人员参与的治疗计划,除了护士为她分发美沙酮外,专业辅导员也会约见她为她提供必要的帮助。

 

Patients not criminals 应按病人而不是罪犯相待

The foundation for Guizhou’s experiment was laid with a national anti-drug law implemented in 2008. It allows users to avoid criminal penalties if they seek help from police or the health-care system on their own initiative. Hu Xiaomei, director of the Honghuagang district drug-control office in Zunyi, says separating the punishment of traffickers from the treatment of drug users was crucial for making the new approach work. “Serious criminals need to be handled according to law,” Ms Hu says, “But our new approach towards ordinary users is that they are victims and patients who need help.”

2008年颁布的国家反毒法为贵州的这项试验奠定了基础。如果吸毒者主观愿意向警方或卫生保健部门寻求帮助的话,这项计划会使他们免受刑事处罚。胡晓梅作为遵义红花岗区毒品控制办公室主任指出将惩罚毒品走私犯同治疗吸毒者分别对待是执行新方法最关键之所在。对严重犯罪我们依法需要严惩,可我们的新办法是针对普通吸毒者,因为他们是需要帮助的受害者群体。”

 

A report released this year by Human Rights Watch, a pressure group, highlights the unusual nature of that approach, even after the passage of the 2008 law. In much of China’s drug-treatment system, the report said beatings, forced labour and sexual abuse are the norm, especially in the south-western provinces of China where, because they are close to South-East Asia’s Golden Triangle, traffickers and users are concentrated. Police say Guizhou is a conduit for drugs produced in nearby Myanmar and shipped from Hong Kong.

最近一份由一个施压团体“人权观察组织”发表的报告突显了该方法不同寻常的本质,尤其是2008年相关法律通过后。报告中提到中国对待毒品方式曾采取更多的是殴打,强制劳动和性虐待,似乎成了家常便饭,特别在中国西南省份中尤为突出,因为这些省份都靠近东南亚金三角,走私毒贩和吸毒者大都集中在这个地区。据当地警察讲整个渠道是在缅甸附近制造毒品而从香港发货。

 

The Sunshine Project is also making innovative use of public-private partnership schemes in which private businesses agree to employ recovering drug users in exchange for subsidies or other support from the government. In the case of the packaging factory, the government provided the land and the shell of a building.

阳光计划也开创了公私合作伙伴关系的先河,因为在这个计划中私营老板们同意雇佣正在康复中的吸毒人员为此可以从政府那里得到相应的补贴。拿包装厂的例子来讲,政府为此提供土地和厂房。

 

Ye Kai, the plant’s general manager, admits that recovering addicts can be less efficient workers. Many lack education, have health problems and take longer to train. But, he says, the problems do not outweigh the benefits he received from the government or pose obstacles to the success of his business.

厂总经理叶凯承认正在康复的吸毒者们的确工作效率不高。许多人没有受到良好的文化教育,还有很多人身体健康有问题以及要花更多的时间对他们进行培训。可他也指出这些问题与他从政府那里得到的实惠相比就不算什么了,否则就会给他生意上的成功带来障碍。

The programme has critics, but its architects have been keen to solicit a broad range of opinions about it. On September 1st Guizhou’s powerful police chief, Cui Yadong (badge number 000001), presided over a symposium attended by more than 100 officials and experts from around the country. Most reactions were positive, though a few experts suggested the goals were too ambitious, or that ordinary people would balk at the amounts of money being spent on drug addicts, who are often held in lower regard than other ex-convicts in China.

尽管这项计划招来了不少非议,但其策划者们还是尽力去争取广泛的民意。精明强干的贵州警察局长(警徽编号为000001) 91日主持召开了由来自全国各地100多位官员和专家参加的研讨会。大部分与会者对此都表示出积极的态度。只是有为数不多的几位专家认为该目标过于超前,担心人们普遍会对把大把钞票花在吸毒者身上有所犹豫,这些吸毒成瘾者如今在中国比过去会更被人看不起。

 

Police say they view the cost as an investment. So far the province has budgeted 130m yuan ($21m) for the Sunshine Project. In Duyun, another city in Guizhou, workers at one Sunshine enterprise stitch together baseballs, and at another they make cloth gloves. Duyun’s police chief, Xu Yanhong, says he is already seeing results. Unemployment is lower, he says, which means better public order. When drug use drops, so does crime. He is also beginning to see reductions in HIV infection rates. “This is definitely worthwhile,” Mr Xu says. “It’s not just good for the patients. It helps me do my job.”

而这位警官却认为把钱花在这项计划上是一种投资。到目前为止,省政府已经为阳光计划投入了1亿3千万人民币(相当于21百万美元)在贵州的另一座名为都匀的城市,在由阳光计划扶植的企业里工人们从事着缝垒球的工作,也有做手套的。都匀市警察局长许岩宏讲他已经看到了该计划结出的硕果。他说失业率比以往显得更低了,也就意味着公共秩序会改善得更好。吸毒的人少了,自然犯罪率也就降低了。显然艾滋病毒感染率在明显下降。许先生还说,“这种投入是非常值得的,不仅对病人有益,同时也有助于我开展工作。”

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