展现内心最精彩的一面
2012年9月26日 | 作者: Robert Xian | 357 浏览
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最近在美国著名的“自然”Nature 杂志上刊登了一篇文章,描述了如何更有效地杜绝科学界的弄虚作假。读罢此文觉得非常有令人警世的意义,所以特别将其翻译成中文以便读者对照阅读。同时,我也发现这是一篇对英语学习者来说非常好的阅读材料。为了帮助朋友们理解,此番特地分段把所有学习者可能碰到的语言点做了注解并举了相关的例句。所有讲解都仅供参考,希望能对诸位阅读有所帮助。由于时间仓促,漏译,错译之处在所难免,还望诸位谅解并欢迎大家指正。

Through the gaps 逾越鸿沟

A 20-year campaign of scientific fraud says as much about the research community as it does about the perpetrator. The system that allowed such deception to continue must be reformed.

历时20年同科学上弄虚作假的拼争说是在同研究领域进行抗争实际上是在同罪犯者抗争。这个让允许欺骗如此持续下去的体系必须要进行改革。

 

Many questions are provoked by the shocking case of Yoshitaka Fujii, the Japanese anaesthesiologist who seems likely to set a record for the highest number of retracted papers by a single scientist. His entire list of publications has come under scrutiny: his trail of deception seems to have wound through almost 200 scientific articles over 20 years. Twenty years! How could it go on for so long?

由日本的一位麻醉学专家吉高藤井裕久令人震惊的事件引发了许多问题,该人似乎可能创下了一项单一科学家被撤消论文的最高数字记录。他所有发表的论文全部受到了仔细审查。在过去20年中他欺骗的劣迹似乎伤及到了几乎200篇科学论文。20年呀!怎么会居然让这种劣迹放纵了如此之久?

 

Fujii seems to have fabricated multiple studies wholesale, in some cases inventing participants. Nobody noticed — not his collaborators, funders, home institutions or journal editors. Or at least, nobody took action.

藤井裕久似乎是大规模地伪造了许多研究成果,且在有些案例中编造了参与者。就连他的合作者,基金会,他所在研究所甚至杂志编辑都没意识到他的欺骗,没有任何人注意到他的欺骗,更没有人对此采用任何行动。

 

In retrospect, as in all cases of scientific fraud, the bulk of the questions will, rightly, focus on how to make sure that it cannot happen again. That, and why so much time passed before anyone investigated how Fujii was publishing clinical studies at impossible speed.

让人们反思的是,随着形形色色科学界弄虚作假所引发的案件被识破,大量的疑问都会集中在如何确保这种事件不再发生。为什么那么长时间过去了才有人来对藤井裕久是如何以不可思议的速度发表其临床研究进行调查。

 

Fujii pulled the wool over the eyes of many different people — chief among them, various employers, whom he also falsely claimed had approved his studies, and journal editors. (One editor has publicly issued a mea culpa.) Perhaps most puzzling is that Fujii fooled his co-authors, one of whom published dozens of papers with him. The co-authors say that they had no suspicions; the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists, which had a key role in exposing Fujii’s fraud, is investigating.

藤井裕久欺骗了很多不同类型的人,主要是集中在各种各样的员工身上,他总是骗他们宣称他的研究成果得到了批准,还有杂志编辑(有一位编辑公开承认了自己的过失)或许最令人不解的是藤井裕久竟然欺骗他的共著者,其中一位居然还同他一起发表过12篇论文。)这位共著者讲他们跟本就没有怀疑过他。在揭露藤井裕久作假起关键作用的日本麻醉师协会现在也在调查此事。

 

But let’s be honest. Even assuming that any co-author had suspicions, the current system means that it would not have been easy to raise the alert. It can be difficult to document a colleague’s errant ways, and whistle-blowers might put their own careers at risk by angering a senior member of the field.

可还是让我们诚实地讲甚至都猜测任何共著者没有对此产生过怀疑,目前的体系意味着不大容易让人们提高警觉,也很难去记录一个同事的劣迹,而揭发者要是惹怒了这个领域的某位长者说不定会危及到自己的前程。

 

“On financial grounds alone, there are sound reasons for the authorities to increase the resources invested in efforts to limit academic misconduct.”

“就单纯从资金方面来说,当局也应该有理由增加投入力度以限制学术上不检点行为的发生”

 

Those who inform authorities about other types of fraud sometimes get rewards. For example, the US government last week paid out its — and probably the world’s — biggest ever payment to a whistle-blower. The former banker, who was jailed for his own role in a tax-evasion scandal, received US$104 million. Observers — especially lawyers — are pointing out that such windfalls might be the only way to encourage more insiders to put their necks on the line, which remains the most effective way to protect against such crimes.

对于那些给当局提供举报有关其它类型欺骗信息的人们有时还有机会得到奖励。例如,美国政府在上星期就兑现了或许是世界上最大的一笔奖励揭发者的酬金,这位前银行家因为卷入一起偷税案使自己一度身陷囹圄但却最终得到了1.04亿美金奖金。观察家们特别是律师们指出这一令人意想不到的结果或许成为唯一的途径去鼓励更多内部知情者们身先士卒地踊跃行动起来,这样做会最有效地防止这种犯罪。

 

That method is probably unworkable in science. Funders won’t have that kind of cash to throw at scientific whistle-blowers. And imagine the uproar, not least in these pages, if whistle-blowers routinely got payouts bigger than the grants available for science projects through competitive peer review.

这种方法或许在科学领域行不通。基金会不太会有闲钱扔在奖励科学领域的举报者们身上。假如举报者们按长规能得到的钱比通过同行颇具竞争性窥视监督弄到本应批给科学项目款还要高的话,可以想像一下起码在这里会引起轩然大波

 

In the tax-evasion case, the figure was justified because it was only a small fraction of what the US government was able to recoup. But governments should also consider the amount of waste incurred by research fraud, especially when that fraud is carried out over decades and enshrouded in the scientific literature. On financial grounds alone, there are sound reasons for the authorities to increase the resources invested in efforts to limit academic misconduct, without the need to provide monetary rewards.

在上面提到的偷税案中,那个奖励的钱数还是公正的,因为那是美国政府追回款项中很小的一部分。但政府也应该考虑调查欺诈招导致相当数量的浪费,特别是当那欺骗持续了几十年并隐藏在科学文献中。就单纯从资金方面来说,当局就算是不提供奖金也应该有合理的理由增加投入力度以杜绝学术上不检点行为的发生

 

Japan, for example, could make it easier for whistle-blowers to take their claims to an external body, rather than to their employers. In theory, the country already has such a system. But in practice, agencies at the relevant ministries merely forward claims to the institutions involved, leaving whistle-blowers vulnerable.

比如日本本来就能让举报者们很容易地将他们的检举内容提交给以外的某个机构而不是他们的顾主。理论上讲,这个国家已经拥有了这套系统,可实际上,相关部门的代理们只是将举报内容转给有问题的机构,这样就会使举报者们受到打击报复。

 

In the wake of the latest scandal, there are signs of positive change. The Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists was so frustrated at the lack of an effective whistle-blowing mechanism that it plans to establish one. A group of 23 journal editors deserves credit for effectively, if belatedly, rooting out Fujii’s problematic publications. And statistical approaches to evaluating results — such as those used to show that Fujii’s data were far too perfect — are becoming more familiar, more readily available and, hopefully, more accepted as a legitimate way to audit published findings and raise red flags where necessary.

通过最近出的丑闻得到的警醒是有很多迹象表明出现了积极的转变。日本麻醉师协会对于缺乏有效举报机制感到非常沮丧。为此计划建立这么一套体系。由23位杂志编辑组成一个群体有效地根除了藤井裕久发表的有质疑论文,尽管有些迟缓但还是值得受到称赞的。采用统计学的方法来评估结果,比如那些曾经指出藤井裕久的数据太过完美的方式现在正变得更令人们熟悉起来,变得更加行之有效起来,同时也更令人充满了希望。从而在作为一种具有法律效应的方法去审核发表内容方面被更广泛地接受,只要发现问题就发出警告。 

 

It is important to note that although this latest case of fraud seems (again) to be an anomalous, extreme example involving one individual, the problems that allowed it to persist are endemic in scientific communities around the world. It is equally important to say (again) that they must be addressed in comprehensive fashion.

尽管最新的欺骗案件似乎(又)是一个异常的牵扯一个人的极端案件,但允许任其发展下去的诸多问题就会在全球科学界泛滥,注意到这一点是非常重要的。还有一点也同等重要那就是必须用全面时尚的方式对这些问题进行阐述。

 

文章语言点分析

Through the gaps 

在翻译这个题目时思考了很久,因为单纯从字面解释是非常困难的。开始想用穿越。。。可是还是觉得不好,gap 这个词想必大家都知道是沟的意思,如:generation gap 意思是“代沟”而在这里如果单纯的翻成沟好像还是不能充分地把作者的意图表达出来,我的理解是作者把科学领域的作假比喻成 gaps,要想成功就要逾越这条鸿沟才行。于是就将题目定为“逾越鸿沟”。

 

A 20-year campaign of scientific fraud says as much about the research community as it does about the perpetrator. The system that allowed such deception to continue must be reformed.

在这段中有个词 “perpetrator” 应译为犯罪者,行凶者。 而还有一个短语是 as much as 可以理解为与。。。等同,或同。。。一样多。但在翻译过程中不必非要将其生硬地译出来,我在翻译时,只是将其含义翻出并没有提及任何等同之类的话, “说是在同研究领域进行抗争实际上就是在同罪犯者抗争 ”这里面就有异曲同工之处的含义,也就是说两者应该是一码事。

再有就是that allowed …所引导的是一个定语丛句,用来修饰system 这个词的。

 

Many questions are provoked by the shocking case of Yoshitaka Fujii, the Japanese anaesthesiologist 麻醉师 who seems likely to set a record for the highest number of retracted papers by a single scientist. His entire list of publications has come under scrutiny: his trail of deception seems to have wound through almost 200 scientific articles over 20 years. Twenty years! How could it go on for so long?

1。这里有个词 provoke 有“激起,引发,引起,惹着。。。”之意,比如:

  • They have only to provoke an enemy into an attack.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件! 他们只要惹怒敌人使发动进攻即可。
  • 想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件! This is why I advise people not to provoke the robber.就是为什么奉劝人们不要激怒劫匪

2。而shocking 是表示令人震惊的含义。

3。还有 seem likely to … 这个短语中的seem 实际上是个系动词,相当于 be 的用法。

4。set a record ,可以翻译成创下一项纪录。

5。Have come under scrutiny 是在接受仔细审查之意,

比如:有个例句:

Many areas of the EJB specification have come under scrutiny.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

EJB 规范许多方面已经开始受到仔细审查

6。trail 原意是踪迹的意思,比如:

I am bound, you are bound, to everyone on this planet by a trail of six people.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

这个星球上每个人一个个人踪迹

而在这里为了让译文更加具有可读性,可以试着将其翻成欺骗的劣迹,读来会让人觉得更加贴切。

7。这段中还有一个词 “retracted”  原意是收回,撤回,缩回等意思。比如:

-A ladybug can retract its head into its body. 瓢虫可以自己缩回躯体中去。想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!The instant is solemn; there is still time to retract if you think you have been mistaken.这个时刻庄严的,假使认为先前说来得及收回的话。

-“We fully retract this paper from the published record,” Lancet editors said in a statement Tuesday.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

我们发表记录完全撤消论文”,《柳叶刀编辑周二份声明中

8。这段的最后一句 How could it go on for so long? 单纯地从字面上翻,这里的go on 是表示如此继续下去的含义,我在处理这个词组时把它译成“放纵下去”这样会增加其渲染色彩,使译文读起来更显生动。

Fujii seems to have fabricated multiple studies wholesale, in some cases inventing participants. Nobody noticed — not his collaborators, funders, home institutions or journal editors. Or at least, nobody took action.

1。这段中的 fabricate 原意是伪造, 根据上下文可以考虑把它译成编造,读来会更符合原文作者想要表达的含义。

2。multiple 可以翻成许多的, 它强调的是数量上的多且具有多种多样的含义。

3。这里的 wholesale 原意是批发,可在这里是个副词,意思是大规模地,不加选择地从事造假学术研究的意思。

In retrospect, as in all cases of scientific fraud 欺骗, the bulk of the questions will, rightly, focus on how to make sure that it cannot happen again. That, and why so much time passed before anyone investigated how Fujii was publishing clinical studies at impossible speed.

1。这段中有个常用的短语 focus on  如:

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!Next, we turn from the disk subsystem to focus on the processors接下来我们要将焦点磁盘子系统转移处理器

2。 这里的 impossible 表示的是绝对不可能的概念,比如:把1000万全给损失掉了,而你每月只能挣几千块,就表明无能力偿还就意味着还钱是不可能的了。

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!3。It is impossible for me to recoup.叫我弥补损失不可能的。在这里是想表达这位麻醉师出研究成果的速度超乎寻常的快,而这种快按常规是绝对不可能实现的。

Fujii pulled the wool over the eyes of many different people — chief among them, various employers, whom he also falsely claimed had approved his studies, and journal editors. (One editor has publicly issued a mea culpa.) Perhaps most puzzling is that Fujii fooled his co-authors, one of whom published dozens of papers with him. The co-authors say that they had no suspicions; the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists, which had a key role in exposing Fujii’s fraud, is investigating.

1。这段开头句中有个非常有用的短语 pull the wool over the eyes of sb.意思是蒙骗某人之意。 如:

  • The majority leader proposed a plan yesterday that’s nothing more than another attempt to pull the wool over the eyes of the American people.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!多数党领袖昨日提出方案,充其量只不过再次糊弄美国人民烟雾弹而已。

  • I won’t vote for that politician again. I‘ve seen him pull the wool over the eyes of the voters with lots of promises, but he never carries them out once he gets into office.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!句话翻到中文就是说:“不会那个政客了.已经看到选民好多愿来蒙蔽他们但是一旦当选以后,所做的保证,一个也没有对现。”

2。puzzling 表示令人迷惑不解之意。如:

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!I was puzzling over that one when it hit me: As a Catholic woman, I was doing the same thing.另外一个使困惑不解作为一个信奉天主教妇女同样事情

3。还有一个词看起来似乎大家都觉得非常容易,可实际上并非如此。

fool, 有欺骗,愚弄之意,主要侧重在行为欺骗人方面,而大家一定常听到北美这边儿人们常说 hi, don’t screw me ! 这里的 screw 表示诈骗钱财之意,所以侧重点在钱财方面欺骗别人。希望大家在使用这两个词时要留神。而在表达同某人发生性行为时这两个词基本含义是一样的,而北美人会更倾向用 screw 而非 fool with sb  .

4。 凡是在国外上过学的人都知道 papers 是指“论文”或“作业”之类的含义。

5。还有一个非常有用的短语 have a key role in 表示在。。。当中起作用。

But let’s be honest. Even assuming that any co-author had suspicions, the current system means that it would not have been easy to raise the alert. It can be difficult to document a colleague’s errant ways, and whistle-blowers 告密者,举报人 might put their own careers at risk by angering a senior member of the field.“On financial grounds alone, there are sound reasons for the authorities to increase the resources invested in efforts to limit academic misconduct.”

 

1。raise the alert 表示提高警觉之含义。比如:

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!Officials at the monitoring centre then decide whether to raise the alert level based on information acquired by the EDM equipment.官员根据观测站设备测量的资料,来决定是否升高警戒层级

2。这里有个名词 document 却当动词使用,表示把什么。。。归入文档之中。我在翻译这个词时把它译成了record 的含义会降低其文字上的生硬程度。

3。put…on risk 是个短语意思是把。。。。。。置于危险境地。

4。这里的 sound reason 是表示合理的理由,sound 还有“可靠”之意, 比如:

They do this by being well informed about their subjects by being honest in what they say, by using sound evidence, and by employing valid reasoning.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

他们通过好阐述他们主题通过诚实他们所说的话通过使用可靠论据以及通过正确的评论这件事。

 

Those who inform authorities about other types of fraud sometimes get rewards. For example, the US government last week paid out its — and probably the world’s — biggest ever payment to a whistle-blower. The former banker, who was jailed for his own role in a tax-evasion scandal, received US$104 million. Observers — especially lawyers — are pointing out that such windfalls might be the only way to encourage more insiders to put their necks on the line, which remains the most effective way to protect against such crimes.

1。get rewards 得到奖励。 一般是指金钱上的奖励。如:

We will make out different targets according to different markets. You will get rewards after making certain business turnover.想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

我们针对不同市场规模制定营业目标努力,专卖店超额完成,一定奖励

2。windfalls 是指出人意料的收获。

请看例句:Finally, these are genuine windfalls. 最后这些名副其实意外收入。

3。put their necks on the line 是个俚语表示努力去做什么事,我在翻译这句话时为了读起来更中文化,就把它译为“ 身先士卒地踊跃行动起来”似乎更感到具有可读性。当然这只是我个人的理解,不一定对,仅供参考。

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

That method is probably unworkable in science. Funders won’t have that kind of cash to throw at scientific whistle-blowers. And imagine the uproar, not least in these pages, if whistle-blowers routinely got payouts bigger than the grants available for science projects through competitive peer review.

1。throw at 是个短语,表示抛向。。。 我们常听别人讲“别再往里抛钱了” 当你在做现场口译翻译时就可以使用这个短语。

2。虽然 uproar 原意是吵闹,我却把它翻成了“ 轩然大波”为的是让这种喧嚣的气氛更浓。

3。peer 表示对手窥视之含义,可以翻成透过竞争对手的窥视审阅下。

In the tax-evasion case, the figure was justified because it was only a small fraction of what the US government was able to recoup. But governments should also consider the amount of waste incurred by research fraud, especially when that fraud is carried out over decades and enshrouded 躲藏 in the scientific literature. On financial grounds alone, there are sound reasons for the authorities to increase the resources invested in efforts to limit academic misconduct, without the need to provide monetary rewards.

1。这里的tax-evasion 可以翻成偷税。

2。incurred by 可以译为由。。。引发的,这里可以把它译成由。。。导致了。。。读起来会更像中文表达方式。

3。without 所以发出的短句实际上有虚拟成分在其中,可以译为就算是不。。。读来会更让读者觉得像中文的味道。

Japan, for example, could make it easier for whistle-blowers to take their claims to an external body, rather than to their employers. In theory, the country already has such a system. But in practice, agencies at the relevant ministries merely forward claims to the institutions involved, leaving whistle-blowers vulnerable.

1。这句话中的 could 有本来能的含义,根据整段的意思看,作者想表达揭发者本来是可以更容易的向外设机构检举的,可问题是。。往后看,大家会发现作者只是一种理论上的推测而已,而实际上,由于接到举报的部门把举报内容直接转给了涉案的机构自身,这样揭发者必然会受到打击报复之类的牵连。

2。这里的merely 表示单纯的,仅仅是。。。 是个副词,也透显出了机构的无奈。。。

3。vulnerable  是指易于受伤害的,最脆弱的的含义, 比如:

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!They add: “We do hope the government will listen to, and act upon, our plea, for the sake of some of the most vulnerable in our society.他们写道:“为了我们社会容易受伤害那些人我们希望政府可以听取我们恳求然后作出决定。”

在这段里把它翻成易受打击报复会更贴切些。

 

In the wake of the latest scandal, there are signs of positive change. The Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists was so frustrated at the lack of an effective whistle-blowing mechanism that it plans to establish one. A group of 23 journal editors deserves credit for effectively, if belatedly, rooting out Fujii’s problematic publications. And statistical approaches to evaluating results — such as those used to show that Fujii’s data were far too perfect — are becoming more familiar, more readily available and, hopefully, more accepted as a legitimate way to audit published findings and raise red flags where necessary. 1。这里有个短语 be frustrated at 表示对。。。很沮丧。 如:

It’s not the end of the world, ” he said, laughing at a suggestion that he might be frustrated at the loss. “这又不是世界末日。” 他可能由于这次失败而沮丧说法不屑一顾

2。短语  deserve credit for 是值得称赞的意思。例如:

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!Previous allegations were widely reported by Iran’s mainstream media, which deserve credit for exposing the story despite the present regime’s record of intimidating free speech, says the editorial.篇社论此前指控得到了伊朗主流媒体广泛报道伊朗现政权威胁言论自由情况揭露这一事件值得表扬

3。root out 有连根拔起的含义,在这里应该译为彻底清除会比较更符合中文表达方式。

4.这里的 where necessary, 其实是个省略句,全句的意思原本应该是只要发现出了问题就。。。所以整句可以翻成 只要发现问题就发出警告”读起来会更像中文。

想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

It is important to note that although this latest case of fraud seems (again) to be an anomalous, extreme example involving one individual, the problems that allowed it to persist are endemic in scientific communities around the world. It is equally important to say (again) that they must be addressed in comprehensive fashion.

1。anomalous 是异常的,不规则的。 如:

The mass-media era now looks like a relatively brief and anomalous period that is coming to an end. 现在大众传媒时代看起经过一个相当简短异常时期就要走向终点

2。involving….带出来一个分词短语,起定语从句的作用。 实际上这句话也可以写成  extreme example that involves one individual. 这种采用分词短语做定语修饰前面名词的用法在英语里可谓司空见惯,尤其是书面语用得更多些。因为这种用法会使结构更加简炼,更加紧凑,从某种意义上来说也更具文采。想启用英文朗读功能吗?请先安装flash插件!

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1 条评论
  • 1.七成新 says:

    几天不见,翻译工作大有进展,太高深了,难怪读的人少,编辑也是一样。等我找一篇请您翻一下。

    老七,让你见笑了,的确花了我些精力和时间。遗憾的是读的人不多,交流的人就更少了。

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