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今天最新一期出版的经济学家 Economist杂志刊登了一篇题目为“10亿个大脑”的文章, 作者讲述了目前印度人对教育的投入和每个公民对教育的重视程度。特别是其教育发展速度大有要超过中国的趋势,读来耐人寻味,发人深省。的确应该引起每个中国人的认识且要对此有足够的重视。不然将来教育最为落后的国家就是中国了。

拥有世界人口最多的国家排名原来是中国,可最近发现印度已经跃居榜首了。在我的印象中印度这个国家整体很落后,有钱人真的有钱,而没钱的普通百姓占大多数且挣扎在贫困线以下残喘地生存着,贫富悬殊非常大。让我不可思议的就是这么一个贫穷的国度国民对教育重视的程度远远超过中国人,印度政府对教育的投入逐年增加并给予高度重视,这的确令我或许也令每个中国人都感到震撼。为了让大家更详尽地了解目前印度教育发展程度,特别将这篇文章全文翻译出来供有兴趣了解这方面问题的朋友们参考。

同时,文章写得非常吸引人,整篇原文的文字表达非常地道, 用词常常令人出乎意料,有些词和短语用法堪称一绝,文章的英文写作手法达到了登峰造极的境界,是包括我在内的所有英语学习者值得认真研读的典范。为此,我特别详尽地把每段中的重点词或短语作了注解,且为了保证每个解释的内容准确无误,所有列举的解释全部出自全球最具权威的“牛津英语大词典”,也是我本人最为信奉、最为推崇的英语词典。“牛津英语大词典”本身的权威性太具震撼力,是目前市面儿上任何一本英语字典所无法与之媲美的。

由于时间紧迫且仓促,我个人准备不足,所以漏译,错译之处在所难免,希望大家谅解并欢迎指正。

A billion brains  10亿个大脑

A better education system calls for more than money 一个更好的教育体系所需要的超过金钱

Sep 29th 2012 | from the print edition

Your country needs you 你的国家需要你

CLIP ON A harness, lift your legs and hurtle down 猛冲a wire towards the sharp corners of a 15th-century Rajasthani fort. As you whizz, you might have a few niggling doubts. Was the zip-wire serviced by someone who knew what he was doing? Is the safety adviser any good? Who is trained in first aid?

在降落伞背带上别个卡子,两腿悬空便顺着一根缆绳朝着一个15世纪名为拉贾斯城堡直角处急速滑下去。随着滑行时发出的飕飕声,你或许会产生几分莫名其妙的疑虑。这像拉锁般的绳子是由一些知道他们在做什么的人提供的吗?这个安全顾问好吗?受过紧急救护培训的人是谁?

 

Fortunately the staff in Neemrana, a tourist spot some 130km south-west of Delhi, are on the ball 精明能干的. Raj Kumar, the lead instructor of Flying Fox, has an impressive (if not entirely relevant) qualification as a Master of Philosophy in ancient Indian history. “I had planned to do my PhD, but this opportunity came along,” he says. The outfit’s British owner-manager, Jonathan Walter, explains that getting and keeping reliable workers is his greatest headache. The problem is not so much the onerous 负有义务的,繁琐麻烦的labour laws but finding skilled people. To deal with foreigners his staff need good English; for Indian customers they need social skills to cajole 说服,诱导,哄骗 the reluctant into the walk up the hill.

幸运的是位于德里西南差不多130公里外一个名叫宁拉纳镇的一处旅游景点有一位员工非常精明能干正准备采取应急措施呐。他的名字叫拉库马尔,作为这个“飞狐”娱乐项目的首席教练具有让人印象深刻的资历,获得了研究古印度历史的哲学硕士学位。他说“我早就打算读博士了,如今这个机会来了。”这家机构的英国业主经理乔纳森·沃尔特解释到找个并能留住的,信得过的工人对他来说是件最头疼的事。问题是没有个像样的,负有义务的劳动法来保障能找到熟练工人。同外国人打交道,他的雇员都需要英文讲得很好才行; 而对于印度当地的客户他们需要有社会沟通技能以便能说服不情愿的人们愿意爬上这座山来。

 

There is plenty of anecdotal evidence that skilled workers are becoming scarce. The man in charge of building a university, also in Neemrana, says he had extreme difficulty recruiting the ten types of masons 泥瓦匠  he needed to work on his campus. A manager overseeing hotel construction near Delhi’s airport says good plumbers, carpenters and electricians are like gold-dust.

目前有大量例证显示熟练工人越来越变得紧缺。也是在宁拉纳镇负责正在为一所大学建楼的人士说现在想雇10种在这个校园里建楼所需类型的泥瓦匠极为困难。还有一位在德里机场附近监督饭店建设工程的经理讲现在能干的管工,木工以及电工都成了香饽饽。

 

 

A survey by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors estimates that in 2010 India had just over 500,000 civil engineers 土木工程师when it needed nearly 4m, and 45,000 architects when it needed 366,000. It predicts that by 2020 the cumulative shortfall of core professionals involved in the building trade could be in the tens of millions.

英国皇家测量师协会提供的调查显示印度在2010年就已经有超过50万的土木工程师而当时实际需求差不多是4百万,而建筑师只有45,000人而当时实际需求量为366,000人。预计到2020年参与到建筑行业里的核心型专业人员的累积短缺状况或许会达到上千万之多。

 

The shortages extend far beyond the construction industry. The editor of a new magazine, the Caravan, says finding skilled staff is next to impossible because local education is “extremely bad”. A manufacturer moans that even if you find capable staff, they quickly flit off to the next job.

这种短缺状况所涉及的领域远远不止是在建筑工业。一本新发行的名为“大篷车”的杂志编辑表示现在想找个熟练业务人员简直就是不可能的事因为当地的教育水平“奇差”。还有一个工厂的业主也抱怨说即便你刚找到了一个能干的员工,可很快他们就跳槽到别处去干了。

 

 

Even some low-skilled labour is in short supply. An agent in Chandigarh for an engineering company says that sales of tractors, rice transplanters and harvesters are booming in Punjab because fewer casual labourers are migrating from Bihar. Even poorer farmers now buy machines to share.

甚至有些低薪的熟练工都出现了短缺状况。一个位于昌迪加尔(印度北部城市名)专门为工程公司找人的中介表示目前在旁遮普(印度西北部的一地方)拖拉机,水稻插秧机和收割机的销售人员正变得火起来因为从比哈尔(印度东北部一座城市)移过来的打零工人员少得可怜。甚至更穷的农民现在都要买这些设备来共同分享使用。

 

Generally, though, the shortage is of people who are literate, trained and ready to work. The basics are improving. The national literacy rate is up from 52% in 1991 to 74%, according to the census. But gains beyond that are coming far too slowly.

总的来说,现在缺的都是懂文化受过培训可以随时上岗的人员。基本素质正在提供。根据人口普查显示全国文化普及率从1991年的52%到如今跃居到了74%。然而除此之外的增长就变得非常缓慢了。

 

 

There is no lack of interest in education, or willingness to pay. Small towns display garish murals or fluttering notices advertising “English medium” schools, computer-training colleges, tutors and management schools. In newspaper marriage ads, prospective grooms and brides often mention their qualifications before their age, looks or caste.

目前缺乏的不是对教育的兴趣和愿不愿意付钱的问题。很多小的城镇都墙上挂满了炫耀的横幅或飘舞着引人注目的广告上面打着“英语中介”学校,计算机培训学院,家教以及管理学校这类的广告。报纸上征婚广告中准新郎、新娘们都常要求彼此的学历,而把对方的年龄,长相或社会地位放在了次要位置。

 

By one estimate, 40% of Indian students now make some use of private education—either private school or topping-up by tutors. A survey in 2011 by Credit Suisse suggested Indians typically spend 7.5% of their income on education, more than Chinese, Russians or Brazilians. Education is seen as a quick route to prosperity. A senior government economist worries that parents “almost spend too much”.

据一项估计表明,有40%的印度学生目前都部分地利用私塾教育-就读私立学校要不就是聘请家教来为自己充电。在2011年由瑞士信贷(全球500强公司之一)所提供的一项调查认为印度人把他们总收入的7.5%都投在了教育上,这种情况非常突出。比中国人,俄国人或巴西人所投入的要多得多。教育似乎成了通往繁荣的快速之路。一位政府的高级经济学家担忧这些人的父母“花的钱会过高”

 

 

On a morning in a poor quarter of east Delhi, Khajuri Khas, that eagerness is evident. In one small school, Ebyon, 200 children sit rapt before young women teachers in a series of small, ill-lit rooms each morning. Then they move to a nearby state school for the afternoon, enjoying a free midday meal, books and some other help.

在德里东部一个叫卡居里卡斯的贫困区的一个早晨,那种渴望读书情景就是例证。在一所面积很小的名为伊贝洋的学校有200名孩子在一个灯光昏暗的屋子里聚精会神地坐在几位女年轻教师们面前听课,随后他们就都前往附近一所国立学校去读下午课,分享免费的午餐,书籍以及其他提供的一些帮助。

 

Parents like Ebyon because it is cheap (80-150 rupees a month) and well run. The headmistress, K.H. Alice, is bright and brisk. A migrant from Manipur, like many of her students, she involves parents, even illiterate ones. The rude and troublesome, “paan spitters”, are turned away. And she keeps records: case studies of why some students flourish and others do not. Schools and Teachers Innovating for Results (STIR), an NGO, is now gathering such examples of good teaching habits to share elsewhere. Spreading good ideas could do more to transform schools than simply scattering money around, argues the group’s founder, Sharath Jeevan.

像伊贝洋这所学校中孩子们的父母认为一个月只花80-150快卢比还觉得便宜,所以学校自然运转良好。女校长K.H.爱丽丝漂亮活泼。像其他许多她的学生们一样,她是一位从曼尼普尔区(印度一中央直辖区,在印度东北部,原为邦)搬来的。她也经历了父母全是文盲的痛苦。那种野蛮且麻烦重重的“吐槟榔者”迫使她离开了那里。并且她保持着多项记录:研究为什么有些学生就能成功而有些就不行。很多学校和教师都参与到了这项非政府组织的研究成果中。目前她正在积累很多好的教师经验同全国各地的人们分享。这个集团的创始人萨拉约辩解到传播好的思想对于改变学校的状况比大把胡乱撒钱会有更多的帮助。

 

 

Some 500,000 of India’s 1.4m schools, with around 300m students, are private. They gather in lots of funds from anxious parents. But the public sector gets plenty of money too. A midday-meal scheme set up here and there decades ago to get poor children into school each day is now running nationwide, at a cost of about 120 billion rupees a year. Better nutrition should mean more concentration and better results.

印度有1,400,000所学校,其中有500,000拥有大约3,000,000学生的学校都是就读私立学校。这些私立学校筹集的款项大多是来自这些渴望自己孩子有出息的父母们。可是公立学校也是资金充足。10年为了帮助那些穷人家的孩子上学到处建立起来的午餐计划现在推广到了全国,每年的花大约12百亿卢比。营养更好就一定意味着更能集中读书,学业也就会取得更好的成绩。

 

 

Some 97% of school-age children enroll, though over half drop out 辍学 before completing secondary school. The quality of teaching is variable; sometimes teachers do not even turn up for lessons. There is plenty of rote learning, discrimination against low-caste children, grade inflation and sometimes flogging. Some teachers accept bribes from students in return for exam passes. One private school in east Delhi has CCTV cameras in every class which allow the headmaster to monitor his teachers.

尽管有一半儿的学生没读完中学就辍学了,但学龄孩子的入学率仍然达到了97%。教学质量也是参差不齐;有时那些老师根本就不来上课。大量的学生都是死记硬背型的,对社会地位低阶层孩子们的歧视,夸大评分甚至有时候学生受到体罚挨鞭子打。有些教师以换取通过考试接受学生的贿赂。在德里东部的一家私立学校甚至在每个班里安装了闭路电视以便让校长监控手下的教师们。

 

 

To improve matters, training is crucial. N.K. Singh, the MP from Bihar, thinks the country needs to recruit 4m new teachers and to retrain 8m. The government seems to have recognised the problem, setting aside about $11 billion for education this year (three-quarters for schools, the rest for universities), an 18% rise on last year.

来自比哈尔的国会议员N.K.赛恩认为国家应该招募4百万新教师以及重新培训8百万现有教师。为了改进这些问题,培训是关键。政府似乎不得不承认这些问题,所以今年专门为教育拨款大约110亿美元。这笔款项主要是给3/4的中小学,其余的拨给大学教育)比去年增长了18%

 

 

A new law, the Right to Education act, is designed to lift school results by setting minimum standards for school buildings, playing fields, student-teacher ratios and the like. That could raise quality, but may mean more bureaucracy, too. It also requires every private school to reserve 25% of its places for poor locals. Critics say fees for the rest will rise or standards will fall. But the best schools are getting on with it.

通过给教学楼,运动场,学生和教师比例等相关事宜确立最低标准以提升学校成绩的一部新法律“受教育权利法”正在设计酝酿当中。这样做会提高质量但也许意味着会出现更多的官僚机构。这部新法还要求每个私立学校必须留出25%位子留给当地家境贫困的孩子们。批评家们指出投在其它方面的费用要是涨上去或许标准就会降低。然而,最好的学校仍然会利用好这个机会继续发展下去。

 

 

To make India more competitive, though, the biggest gains in education must come after school: in vocational and higher education. Quantity is not the issue. The OECD predicts that by the end of this decade India will churn out more graduates than any other country bar China, giving it 24m graduates aged between 25 and 34, some 12% of the world’s total.

为了使印度更具竞争力,所以在教育领域最大的收益一定是来自学生从学校毕业后所创造的; 无论是职业学校还是高等教育。数量不是关键。国际经济合作与发展组织预测在这给10年结束前印度将会炮制出比除了中国外其它任何一个国家都更多的毕业生,25-34岁的毕业生将高达24,000,000.占世界总毕业生人数的12%

 

 

India’s official count of higher-education institutions, both private and public, is nearly 26,500, the world’s biggest country total. The number of students currently enrolled is 15m, or nearly 14% of the age group. The government is pushing to increase enrolment to 30% of the age group by the end of this decade. Ernst &Young, a professional-services firm, says this would involve a rise in the number of students to 40m, at a cost of around $200 billion. But funds are likely to be forthcoming.

印度对私立和公立高等学府的官方计算是26,500所,成为世界上拥有总数最大国家。目前学生入学人数是15,000,000 或差不多是整个这个年龄群体人数的14% 。政府正在努力增加入学人数准备在本世纪末达到这个年龄群体的30% 。一家名为Ernst &Young 的专业服务公司讲这将会使学生人数达到40,000,000 花费大约为200亿美元,这些款项可能会很快拨下来。

 

 

However, the quality is often wretched 卑鄙的,差的. “A lot of private education is useless,” sighs a noted economist. Many management colleges do little teaching but lure applicants with promises of getting them jobs when they have graduated. Too many people end up with worthless qualifications.

然而,教学质量非常差,常令人感到非常不悦。一位知名的经济学家感叹到“很多私立教育都是瞎掰很多管理学院根本就不教学而是一味地采用诱骗的方式向申请人许诺毕业后就能找到工作。很多人最后拿到的文凭都是废纸一张。

 

Education in engineering, for example, supposedly a great Indian strength, is not what it might be. The country produces over 500,000 engineering graduates a year. Aspiring Minds, a Gurgaon-based company that assesses students’ employability, surveyed 55,000 of them last year and found that not even 3% were ready to be taken on by IT firms without extra training. And even identifying people for further training might not be easy. According to the survey only 17% of the graduates had basic skills. Some 92% of the graduates were deficient in 在。。。方面有不足 programming or algorithms, 78% struggled in English and 56% lacked analytical skills. “There is a long way to go before engineering graduates in India become employable,” the survey concluded.

例如,算是印度一个最具强项的工程方面教育现在也不是那么回事了,一年全国培养超过500,000工程学毕业生。位于古尔冈(新德里的卫星城)一家名为 “有抱负思想”的机构是专门从事对学生就业评估的公司,去年对其中的55,000名学生进行了调查发现甚至不到3%的毕业生在不接受额外培训的情况下可以被信息科技公司聘用的,与此同时,连辨别需要培训人身份也不是件容易的事。据一项调查显示,17%毕业生只具备基本技能。这些毕业生中有92%的人缺乏编程和运算能力,78%英文根本不灵以及56%的人缺少分析技能。这份调查报告得出的结论是“印度工程系毕业生在找到工作前还任重道远”

 

 

That sounds glum 忧郁的—until you realise that it also means India produces around 100,000 engineering graduates a year who could soon be working in its IT firms and beyond. Some pockets of higher education work well, notably the publicly run institutes of technology and of management, on the back of which the country’s IT sector flourishes.

看来真让人有些郁闷。你会发现那将意味着印度每年要培养出有近100,000这类工程系毕业生似乎可以开始在其信息技术公司和其它领域的公司工作了。具有高等教育的一小部分毕业生还是干得不错的,在国家信息技术领域繁荣的背后引人注目地公开运营技术和管理研究所。

 

Some private groups, such as the NIIT, a computer-education company, also produce reasonable graduates. The next push is to expand their work into other sectors, such as finance, banking and insurance, says Rajendra Pawar, the NIIT’s founder. He says his group has trained over 30m people in technology. Over the next decade he wants to educate 7m more for industries such as hospitality, health care, the retail trade and banking.

有些私人集团如NIIT,一家从事计算机教育的公司也培养出相当不错的毕业生。该集团的创始人拉金德拉帕瓦尔讲下一步努力就是要扩大他们培训领域,如金融,银行业以及保险业。他说他的集团已经培训了超过30,000,000技术领域的人才。在下一个十年里,他想为工业领域培养7,000,000毕业生,像服务行业,卫生保健,零售业以及银行业。

 

In 2010 India had just over 500,000 civil engineers when it needed nearly 4m, and 45,000 architects when it needed 366,000

2010年印度有超过500,000的土木工程师而实际需求高达近4,000,000. 建筑师45,000人可实际需求是366,000人。

 

 

Public funds are also being deployed to lift skills. The government is pouring money into a National Skill Development Fund, allotting 10 billion rupees to it for this year alone. The fund is meant to help train 62m workers in courses of varying lengths over the next decade. So far, however, it has struggled to find enough credible partners to spend its money well.

公共资金也被部署到用来提高技能上。政府往一个国家技能发展基金会里大把砸钱,单今年一下子就分配给这个基金100亿卢比。这笔钱准备用来在未来10年里帮助培训62,000,000学习各种不同程度课程的工人们。然而到目前为止在努力寻找足可以信得过的伙伴以把钱花在刀刃上。

 

 

Meanwhile private money is flooding into tertiary education. Several tycoons, rather than leaving their entire fortunes to their children, have endowed universities such as the OP Jindal University (named after a steel family), the Azim Premji University (after the founder of Wipro) and the Shiv Nadar University (after the founder of HCL). They are paying higher salaries for good faculty, luring Indian academics from foreign universities and encouraging research as well as teaching.

与此同时,私人的资金正在涌入大学教育里。有几位大亨没把全部的钱留给自己孩子们而是捐赠给了几所大学。(不一一列举了)这些大亨出高价聘用出色的教师,吸引在国外大学工作的印度学者以及除了教学还鼓励科研。

 

 

Mr Pawar’s group is now building a university to promote research that will be immediately useful to business. The leafy campus in Neemrana is rising up beside a maze of Japanese factories. Part of a planned “knowledge corridor” of new universities in Rajasthan, it offers teaching as well as research into biofuels, biotechnology, wireless networking and more. Soon the campus will also provide space for start-up firms. It may not be San Francisco yet, but it is a step in the right direction.

帕瓦尔先生的集团目前正在建立一所大学目的是推动科研,使科研能立即转化成效益。在位于宁拉纳茂密树木环绕的校园正在众多的日本工厂附近崛起。作为在拉贾斯坦邦(印度邦名)计划建造的新兴大学“知识走廊”的一部分,它提供教学同时提供生物油,生物科技,无线网络以及更多领域的科学研究。不久这个学部将为新成立的企业提供空间。或许不会成为旧金山,然而却是向着正确的方向迈进了一步。

 

文章语法要点分析

A billion brains

A better education system calls for more than money 在这里的call for 是要求之意。

Sep 29th 2012 | from the print edition

 

Your country needs you

CLIP ON A harness, lift your legs and hurtle down a wire towards the sharp corners of a 15th-century Rajasthani fort. As you whizz, you might have a few niggling doubts. Was the zip-wire serviced by someone who knew what he was doing? Is the safety adviser any good? Who is trained in first aid?

1。这里作者用了个非常绝妙的词 hurtle表示猛烈冲撞,hurtle down 表示猛烈向下,速度快得惊人。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为: move at great speed.

2niggling 表示琐碎的,无关紧要的,在翻译时我把它译成莫名其妙的含义。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:criticize in a pretty way, trivial criticism

3first aid 是紧急救护。在多伦多的药店里都可以买到所谓 first aid pack 就是紧急救护包,为了方便人们节日出游可能遇到的意外特别生产的一种急救用品,里面有个中第一时间必备的药品。

 

 

Fortunately the staff in Neemrana, a tourist spot some 130km south-west of Delhi, are on the ball. Raj Kumar, the lead instructor of Flying Fox, has an impressive (if not entirely relevant) qualification as a Master of Philosophy in ancient Indian history. “I had planned to do my PhD, but this opportunity came along,” he says. The outfit’s British owner-manager, Jonathan Walter, explains that getting and keeping reliable workers is his greatest headache. The problem is not so much the onerous labour laws but finding skilled people. To deal with foreigners his staff need good English; for Indian customers they need social skills to cajole the reluctant into the walk up the hill.

1。这段中有个俚语on the ball 意思是采取应急措施。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:alert to new ideas and methods

 

2cajole 这个词表示诱惑。。。后面大部分都跟名词,如果跟动词一般用动名词形式。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为: persuade someone to do something by sustained coaxing or flattery

·The Soviet Union offered generous subsidies to cajole workers and young couples to start a new life here.

前苏联提供了丰厚的津贴,以诱使工人和年轻夫妇在这里开创新生活。

 

There is plenty of anecdotal evidence that skilled workers are becoming scarce. The man in charge of building a university, also in Neemrana, says he had extreme difficulty recruiting the ten types of masons he needed to work on his campus. A manager overseeing hotel construction near Delhi’s airport says good plumbers, carpenters and electricians are like gold-dust.

我把gold-dust翻译成“香饽饽”似乎更能让中国读者接受。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:be very rare and valuable

这里的extreme difficulty 的用法比较少见,可以翻成极为困难。

 

A survey by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors estimates that in 2010 India had just over 500,000 civil engineers when it needed nearly 4m, and 45,000 architects when it needed 366,000. It predicts that by 2020 the cumulative shortfall of core professionals involved in the building trade could be in the tens of millions.

1cumulative 是累积的含义。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为: increasing or increased in quantity

2. core professionals 这种用法也不常见。牛津英语大辞典中解释为: the central and the most important part.

 

The shortages extend far beyond the construction industry. The editor of a new magazine, the Caravan, says finding skilled staff is next to impossible because local education is “extremely bad”. A manufacturer moans that even if you find capable staff, they quickly flit off to the next job.

1. 这里的beyond是个常用的表达法

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:apart from ,

.这里的extend表示的是涉及的面儿会更广泛之含义,

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:make a larger in space.

3. flip off   在这里是跳槽的含义,

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:move in a quick action

4.moan 有抱怨的含义,complain or grumble

 

 

Even some low-skilled labour is in short supply. An agent in Chandigarh for an engineering company says that sales of tractors, rice transplanters and harvesters are booming in Punjab because fewer casual labourers are migrating from Bihar. Even poorer farmers now buy machines to share.

1. boom 我在这里把它翻译成。。。火起来了,让读者读起来更符合中国人的口味。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为: a period of great prosperity

 

 

Generally, though, the shortage is of people who are literate, trained and ready to work. The basics are improving. The national literacy rate is up from 52% in 1991 to 74%, according to the census. But gains beyond that are coming far too slowly.

 

There is no lack of interest in education, or willingness to pay. Small towns display garish murals or fluttering notices advertising “English medium” schools, computer-training colleges, tutors and management schools. In newspaper marriage ads, prospective grooms and brides often mention their qualifications before their age, looks or caste.

1。这里有个词 garish牛津英语大辞典中解释为:obstrusively bright or showy 也是我们中国人最流行的说法。。。太炫了,炫耀的。

2 murals牛津英语大辞典中解释为: a painting executed directly on a wall 指的是挂在墙上的横幅。

 

 

By one estimate, 40% of Indian students now make some use of private education—either private school or topping-up by tutors. A survey in 2011 by Credit Suisse suggested Indians typically spend 7.5% of their income on education, more than Chinese, Russians or Brazilians. Education is seen as a quick route to prosperity. A senior government economist worries that parents “almost spend too much”.

On a morning in a poor quarter of east Delhi, Khajuri Khas, that eagerness is evident. In one small school, Ebyon, 200 children sit rapt before young women teachers in a series of small, ill-lit rooms each morning. Then they move to a nearby state school for the afternoon, enjoying a free midday meal, books and some other help.

1 sit rapt 表示聚精会神地坐在那里,

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:sit there fully absorbed and intent.

 

Parents like Ebyon because it is cheap (80-150 rupees a month) and well run. The headmistress, K.H. Alice, is bright and brisk. A migrant from Manipur, like many of her students, she involves parents, even illiterate ones. The rude and troublesome, “paan spitters”, are turned away. And she keeps records: case studies of why some students flourish and others do not. Schools and Teachers Innovating for Results (STIR), an NGO, is now gathering such examples of good teaching habits to share elsewhere. Spreading good ideas could do more to transform schools than simply scattering money around, argues the group’s founder, Sharath Jeevan.

这里有个词用得比较绝 scatter牛津英语大辞典中解释为:throw in various random directions

 

 

Some 500,000 of India’s 1.4m schools, with around 300m students, are private. They gather in lots of funds from anxious parents. But the public sector gets plenty of money too. A midday-meal scheme set up here and there decades ago to get poor children into school each day is now running nationwide, at a cost of about 120 billion rupees a year. Better nutrition should mean more concentration and better results.

1 plenty of  一般是多用在修饰不可数名词的一种用法表示数量很多。

 

 

Some 97% of school-age children enroll, though over half drop out before completing secondary school. The quality of teaching is variable; sometimes teachers do not even turn up for lessons. There is plenty of rote learning, discrimination against low-caste children, grade inflation and sometimes flogging. Some teachers accept bribes from students in return for exam passes. One private school in east Delhi has CCTV cameras in every class which allow the headmaster to monitor his teachers.

1drop out 意思是辍学。牛津英语大辞典中解释为:cease to participate, abandon a course of study.

2。大家或许都知道印度人是分等级的,那么这里的low-caste 是指地位等级低的孩子们。

3 in return for  表示换来的。。。

 

 

To improve matters, training is crucial. N.K. Singh, the MP from Bihar, thinks the country needs to recruit 4m new teachers and to retrain 8m. The government seems to have recognised the problem, setting aside about $11 billion for education this year (three-quarters for schools, the rest for universities), an 18% rise on last year.

1作者用了一个大字眼儿 crucial牛津英语大辞典中解释为:decisive or critical especially in the success or failure of something. 所以用这个词是很有讲究的,也就是说当你想表达决胜负的关键时刻一定要想着用这个词才会让母语为英语国家的人们会对你刮目相看的。

2recognise  牛津英语大辞典中解释为:identify as already known, formally acknowledge that …  一般人们都会把它写成recognize. 而也可以写成recognise. 我想英国人都偏爱把它写成recognise, 而美国人却侧重用recognize. 当然这只是我个人的看法而已。

 

A new law, the Right to Education act, is designed to lift school results by setting minimum standards for school buildings, playing fields, student-teacher ratios and the like. That could raise quality, but may mean more bureaucracy, too. It also requires every private school to reserve 25% of its places for poor locals. Critics say fees for the rest will rise or standards will fall. But the best schools are getting on with it.

我们日常中常听别人讲要提高孩子们或自己的学习成绩。 那这里的lift school results.就表达了这层意思。results 除了有结果的意思外,还有成绩之意。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:express as a statement of profit or loss, 同时也是 outcome 的解释。

 

 

To make India more competitive, though, the biggest gains in education must come after school: in vocational and higher education. Quantity is not the issue. The OECD predicts that by the end of this decade India will churn out more graduates than any other country bar China, giving it 24m graduates aged between 25 and 34, some 12% of the world’s total.

这里的 churn out 是个惯用词组,意思是炮制出。。。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:produce something in large quantities.

而一字之差 如果将后面的介词 out 换成 up 那意思就完全不同了,churn up牛津英语大辞典中解释为:upset or nervous.

所以说英语中最难学的就是这种带介词的动词惯用法词组。可谓千变万化,很难掌握。我的体会是要不断留心,不断积累多记才能用起来得心应手。

 

India’s official count of higher-education institutions, both private and public, is nearly 26,500, the world’s biggest country total. The number of students currently enrolled is 15m, or nearly 14% of the age group. The government is pushing to increase enrolment to 30% of the age group by the end of this decade. Ernst &Young, a professional-services firm, says this would involve a rise in the number of students to 40m, at a cost of around $200 billion. But funds are likely to be forthcoming.

这里的forthcoming 也是个大字眼儿,牛津英语大辞典中解释为:about to happen or appear.

 

 

However, the quality is often wretched. “A lot of private education is useless,” sighs a noted economist. Many management colleges do little teaching but lure applicants with promises of getting them jobs when they have graduated. Too many people end up with worthless qualifications.

1.wretched 表示的很差,令人感到非常不悦。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为: in a very unhappy or unfortunate state.

2. 这段中的little 是起否定意义的词表示几乎没有的含义。

 

 

Education in engineering, for example, supposedly a great Indian strength, is not what it might be. The country produces over 500,000 engineering graduates a year. Aspiring Minds, a Gurgaon-based company that assesses students’ employability, surveyed 55,000 of them last year and found that not even 3% were ready to be taken on by IT firms without extra training. And even identifying people for further training might not be easy. According to the survey only 17% of the graduates had basic skills. Some 92% of the graduates were deficient in programming or algorithms, 78% struggled in English and 56% lacked analytical skills. “There is a long way to go before engineering graduates in India become employable,” the survey concluded.

1。这段中用了很多次的might想必大家一定注意到了,might 在这里具有很强的建设性口吻,表达一种失去了的可能性,是表达一种让步的概念。

2 be deficient in  是个短语意思是在某方面缺乏。。。,

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:not having enough  of a specified quanlity or ingredient.

·比如:So it’s thought that if you’re craving strong flavours such as curry, you may be deficient in zinc and as a result not have a good supply of fully functioning tastebuds.

所以我们认为,当你非常渴望吃具有强烈口感的食物(比如咖喱)的时候,你的身体可能缺乏锌元素,导致功能完整的味蕾数量不足。

 

 

That sounds glum—until you realise that it also means India produces around 100,000 engineering graduates a year who could soon be working in its IT firms and beyond. Some pockets of higher education work well, notably the publicly run institutes of technology and of management, on the back of which the country’s IT sector flourishes.

1glum 表示阴沉的,忧郁的。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:dejected 沮丧or morose 郁闷,

 

 

Some private groups, such as the NIIT, a computer-education company, also produce reasonable graduates. The next push is to expand their work into other sectors, such as finance, banking and insurance, says Rajendra Pawar, the NIIT’s founder. He says his group has trained over 30m people in technology. Over the next decade he wants to educate 7m more for industries such as hospitality, health care, the retail trade and banking.

作者这里所用的push 其实就是指一种努力,牛津英语大辞典中解释为:a vigorous effort.

 

 

In 2010 India had just over 500,000 civil engineers when it needed nearly 4m, and 45,000 architects when it needed 366,000

Public funds are also being deployed to lift skills. The government is pouring money into a National Skill Development Fund, allotting 10 billion rupees to it for this year alone. The fund is meant to help train 62m workers in courses of varying lengths over the next decade. So far, however, it has struggled to find enough credible partners to spend its money well.

1。我个人认为把pour money into 。。。翻译成往。。。里面砸钱会叫人读起来更具地道中文表达的味道,更贴近中国人的表达方式。

2varying lengths 是指那些受训工人的程度各不相同。

3 struggle to do  sth, 表示努力去做某事。

牛津英语大辞典中解释为:make forceful effort to get free, or  strive under difficult circumstances to do something.

 

 

Meanwhile private money is flooding into tertiary education. Several tycoons, rather than leaving their entire fortunes to their children, have endowed universities such as the OP Jindal University (named after a steel family), the Azim Premji University (after the founder of Wipro) and the Shiv Nadar University (after the founder of HCL). They are paying higher salaries for good faculty, luring Indian academics from foreign universities and encouraging research as well as teaching.

flood into牛津英语大辞典中解释为:overwhelming quantities of thing or people appearing at once.

 

 

Mr Pawar’s group is now building a university to promote research that will be immediately useful to business. The leafy campus in Neemrana is rising up beside a maze of Japanese factories. Part of a planned “knowledge corridor” of new universities in Rajasthan, it offers teaching as well as research into biofuels, biotechnology, wireless networking and more. Soon the campus will also provide space for start-up firms. It may not be San Francisco yet, but it is a step in the right direction.

 

这里的will be immediately useful to business 最好不要只翻译字面内容,要真正理解作者想要表达的实质含义。按中国人的表达方式,科研成果如果不能及时转化成效益,说俗点儿就是要是不能把成果用来挣钱的话,那这些成果就什么都不是。说到挣钱对一个公司或企业来说就是效益问题,所以,在翻译这句话时要考虑其背后隐含延伸部分,换句话说就是外延要拓展开,否则翻出来的东西让人读起来就会觉得太过生硬,翻译味道过浓。试想如果将这句话翻译成。。。立即将其用于商业是不是读起来会让人觉得不像中文?

 

 

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