字体 -

随着城市化的转变,中国自杀状况引人注目。在最新一期的经济学家杂志上发表了一篇 有关中国目前自杀状况的报道,颇为引人注目,引起了很多社会学家们的关注,同时也应该引起整个社会的深切关注。现将原文翻译成中文以便朋友们对照参阅。由 于本人才疏学浅,必有错译和漏译之处,还望诸位指正

A dramatic decline in suicides 自杀案大幅度下降

Back from the edge 悬崖勒马


The first of two articles on China’s suicide rate looks at the effect of urbanization 最近有两篇文章介绍了有关中国的自杀率问题,其中第一篇就揭示了城市化效应对中国自杀率的影响

Jun 28th 2014 | BEIJING

IN THE 1990s China had one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Young rural women in particular were killing themselves at an alarming rate. In recent years, however, China’s suicides have declined to among the lowest rates in the world.

 中国在90年代成为了全球自杀率最高的国家。尤其是农村年轻妇女自杀程度惊人。然而,最近几年,中国自杀状况下降了,自杀率降到了全球最低。


In2002 the Lancet, a British medical journal, said there were 23.2suicides per 100,000 people annually from 1995 to 1999. This year a report by a group of researchers from the University of Hong Kong found that had declined to an average annual rate of 9.8 per 100,000 for the years 2009-11, a 58% drop.

2002年出版的一期英国医学杂志-柳叶刀医学杂志上刊登出来的有关中国自杀状况表明从1995-1999年平均100000中就有23.2人自杀。今年由香港大学的一群研究人员发现2009-2011年期间每年的自杀率100000人中只有9.8个案例,下降了58%。


Paul Yip, director of the Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention at the University of Hong Kong and a co-author of the recent study, says no country has ever achieved such a rapid decline in suicides. And yet, experts say, China has done it without a significant improvement in mental-health services—and without any national publicity effort to lower suicides.

香港大学防止自杀研究中心主任也是最近调研的联合撰稿人叶兆辉讲还从来没有一个国家自杀率会降得如此之快。而专家们说中国出现的這一下降趋势并没有得益于对精神病医疗服务的明显改善,国家也没有做努力去搞全民号召。


The most dramatic shift has been in the figures for rural women under 35. Their suicide rate appears to have dropped by as much as 90%. The Lancet study in 2002 estimated 37.8 per 100,000 of this age group committed suicide annually in 1995-99. The new study says this declined to just over three per 100,000 in2011. Another study of suicides, covering 20 years in one province, Shandong,found a decline of 95% among rural women under 35, to 2.6 suicides per 100,000in 2010—and a 68% drop in suicides among all rural women.

35 岁以下的农村妇女的自杀率有了重大转变,自杀率下降了90%。2002年出版的柳叶刀医学杂志揭示了1995-1999年间平均每100000人中就有 37.8人自杀,而新近一项研究表明2011年下降到了每100000中只有3个人自杀,显然自杀比率下降了95%.还有一项覆盖山东省近20年的研究表 明2010年35岁以下农村妇女每100000中只有2.6个自杀,而从总体农村妇女自杀状况看是下降了68%


Scholars suspect that the number of suicides is underreported in official figures (the official suicide rate nationally was 6.9 per 100,000 in 2012) and they make adjustments for that in their calculations. But in several studies, as well as in official data, the long-term decline in suicides has been marked across the spectrum, in rural and urban areas and among men and women from almost all age groups. The only notable exception is the suicide rate among the elderly, which declined overall but has crept back up in recent years, a worrying trend in a rapidly ageing society.

有些学者则持有怀疑态度认为官方提供的自杀数字偏低(官方提供的2012 年全国每100000中有6.9个人自杀)据说是官方在计算这些数字时做了调整。可最近在全国范围的城市和农村各个年龄段对男人和女人所进行的几项调查综 合官方的统计数字从长远角度看整体上自杀状况的确明显下降了。唯独老年群体中的自杀状况例外,仍然尤为突出。曾一度下降的老年自杀率最近几年有所回升,在 一个快速老年化社会里這一趋势令人担忧。


Two intertwined social forces are driving the reduction: migration and the rise of an urban middle class. Moving to the cities to work, even if to be treated as second-class citizens when they get there, has been the salvation of many rural young women, liberating them from parental pressures, bad marriages,overbearing mothers-in-law and other stresses of poor, rural life. Migrants have also distanced themselves from the easiest form of rural suicide,swallowing pesticides, the chosen method in nearly 60% of rural cases, and often done impulsively. The reduction in toxicity of pesticides has helped as well.

移民和城市中产阶级崛起成为两个密切相关推动自杀率降低的社会力量。即便被看作2 等公民也要奔向城市打工已经挽救了众多的农村年轻妇女,让她们从父辈的压迫中得到了解脱,让她们躲避了逼婚,婆婆的虐待以及从承受的农村贫困生活中摆脱了 出来。移民也成为了她们最早远离自杀的方式,最常见的自杀方式是吞食农药,在农村自杀案例中就占了60%,导致的原因常常是一时冲动所造成的。不过,在 农村降低农药毒性也起到了帮助作用。


JingJun, a sociologist at Tsinghua University in Beijing, notes that the increasein migration to the cities fits with the decline in rural suicides (see chart).Since rural dwellers accounted for most suicides, so the national rate hasfallen, too. In 20 years, as the population went from mostly rural to more thanhalf urban, the official national suicide rate dropped by 63%.

北京清华大学的一位叫jing jun 的社会学家强调说移民城市的增长恰巧符合了农村自杀率的下降。既然农村居民被认为是自杀最大的群体,自然全国的自杀率也就下降了。20年中随着大多数农村人口涌入城市成为过半比率时,官方统计的全国自杀率就自然下降了63%


Suicides among urban residents are also dropping, suggesting other causes, too. Chinese newspapers frequently carry dramatic photos of suicidal people being rescued from window ledges and rooftops (like the woman in our picture). But the University of Hong Kong researchers found that urban suicides had dropped to5.3 per 100,000 between 2002 and 2011, a fall of 59%. The simplest explanation is that, in spite of concerns about pollution, food safety and property prices,living standards and general satisfaction with urban life have gone up. Mr Jing also believes that, as in the countryside, the atomisation of extended families has reduced the family conflicts that can lead to suicides.

其他原因引起的自杀人数在城市居民中也在下降。最近一些中国报纸刊登了一系列跳窗台屋顶自杀获救的令人惊心动魄的照片(就像你们看到图片中的這为妇女一样)可香港大学的研究人员们却说在2002到2011年期间每100000人自杀人数下降到了5.3个案例,降幅是53%。最简单的解释是尽管人们关注污染,食品安全和房价,但城市生活总体满意度和生活标准提高了。井先生还相信随着农村扩大式家庭的消失降低了家庭与家庭之间冲突所导致的自杀事件的发生。


Mr Yip and his fellow researchers wonder if this goes against a popular theory,based on the thinking of Emile Durkheim, a 19th-century French sociologist,that urbanisation, modernisation and socioeconomic gains lead to increased social alienation and a higher suicide rate. Some data support this view in the richer developed world, where suicide rates have been rising recently. The estimated global average has increased from 11.6 to as much as 14 per 100,000since 2008. And China’s rich neighbours have significantly higher rates—South Korea’s in 2012 was 28.1 per 100,000, Japan’s was more than 21.

基于19世纪法国社会学家爱米尔·杜尔凯姆(法国社会学家)的思想,叶先生和他的研究人员们怀疑這一剧降会违背普世理论因为爱米尔· 杜尔凯姆认为城市化,现代化以及社会经济的增长会导致社会孤独感以及自杀率的增高。在发达国家自杀率高的地区有些数据正好应正了這一理论。 2008年以来全球平均自杀人数估计从每100000中的11.6例增长到了14例。而中国的富有邻居们自杀率也是大幅度攀升,2012年韩国的自杀人数 每100000 中就有28.1人,日本要超过21人。


Yet China may be hitting a worrisome turning point as it ages and becomes more wealthy. Suicides rose slightly after the 2008 financial crisis, and may continue to do so if the economy slows more dramatically. The forces that shaped suicide’s decline in China—migration and rising urban living standards—are losing steam as well.

然而,随着老龄化和更加富有或许中国正在达到一个令人担忧的转折点。2008年金融危机后自杀案例略微回升,如果经济发展继续大规模放慢或许这种状况会持续发生。在中国形成自杀下降的主力军-移民和正在提高的城市居民生活水平也会随之失去往昔峥嵘。


Most worrying is that suicides remain high among the fastest-growing segment of society, the elderly, who kill themselves at rates ranging from 9.9 per 100,000urban men aged 65-69 to 41.7 per 100,000 rural men aged 70-74. Suicide rates among the elderly generally dropped overall into the middle of the past decade—declining more in the cities than in the countryside—but the rates have been holding steady or resurging since 2008.

最令人担忧的要数社会发展最快阶段自杀人数会居高不下,尤其是老年人65-69岁的自杀人数从每100000人中的9.9个上升到70-74岁年龄段中的每100000中41.7例。在过去10年中期中老年人自杀案例总体上是下降了,可下降的大都发生在城市而不是农村,而自2008年以来自杀率是稳中有升。


The urbanisation and atomisation of the extended family, which led to a decline in suicides among younger generations, have left the elderly with fewer caretakers in the countryside and with few familiar faces in apartment blocks in the cities. The one-child policy has compounded this effect and will only make the burden heavier for the elderly and their children, just as the stresses of modern life are becoming more pronounced. Twenty years from now, the story of China’s suicide rate could be grimmer than it is today. But rates seem unlikely to return to the levels of the 1990s.

导致年轻一代自杀下降因素的城市化和农村扩大式家庭的消失却带给农村老年人更少的关爱以及城市公寓里一张张陌生的面孔。正是由于现代化生活所带来的压力越来越显著,只要一个孩子的计划生育又加重了這一效应就会使老人和孩子们承担更多的负担。从现在起的未来20年,有关中国自杀率报道会变得愈来愈严酷。但這一比率似乎不大可能再回到90年代的水平。

分享博文至: