让数学送给孩子一生的财富(ZT)

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对孩子进行数学启蒙教育哪方面最重要呢?学数学只要学会数数,并能准确迅速地计算就可以了吗?为了让孩子学数学,有的家长让孩子机械地背诵数字、背诵计算题,甚至让他学习连大人都难以学会的珠心算。从表面上看,孩子会认、会算一些题目,而实际上这样机械的数数和运算,并不等于孩子已经掌握了数的概念,学会理性思维。而且,家长的这种填鸭灌输方法,容易使孩子失去学习数学的兴趣,甚至产生恐惧心理。   因此,家长在教育孩子学数学时,要把握孩子的数学学习敏感期(4),并且要遵循数学的认知规律。首先从具体实物感知开始,依赖具体直观形象的玩具教具,建立概念,培养数学智慧,然后再过度到半抽象,最后才到抽象和心算。所以当孩子掰手指数数时,就应该提供孩子可以直接感受的数、量、形,建立数量的对应关系。   例如,家长可以通过教孩子手指谣,帮助他建立基本的数的概念和对应关系:   《十个小宝宝》:一个宝,两个宝,三个,四个,五个宝;六个宝,七个宝,八个宝,九个宝,一共十个小宝宝。   《数青蛙》:一只青蛙一张嘴,两只眼睛四条腿;两只青蛙两张嘴,四只眼睛八条腿,扑通、扑通跳下水。   在日常生活中,家长还可以让孩子通过分碗、勺、筷子,学习数与量的概念;通过碗与筷子的整齐摆放,学习一一对应的关系;通过分配食物,学习平均分配。可以教孩子认识钱币的种类与币值,如欧元、美元、英镑、人民币等,币值的大小排序、换算。带孩子到银行开户、存钱,让他了解家庭的开支,存钱的存期,告诉孩子把钱存在银行不只是为了安全保管,而且是为了让钱增值。在去超市购物前,家长可先与孩子约定可以消费的金额,然后由孩子自己决定购物的品种与数量,使其了解价值交换规则……   数学是与人们的生活息息相关的,在生活实践中,它的概念和理论都有着广泛的应用。家长在教育孩子学数学的过程中,要努力激发他的学习兴趣,培养他主动学习的习惯和数学心智,然后进一步培养其分析问题与解决问题的能力,以及其观察、判断、鉴别、识别、辨别、归纳、推理、逻辑能力。   人的一生需要精神财富,物质财富。让孩子在幼儿时期感知数学可以开发孩子的智力,激发潜能,塑造其完整人格,使他养成自主学习知识的习惯,为将来的成功奠定坚实基础。这是家长送给孩子一生的最佳财富。 作者:徐朝霞 

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