草原垅亩民(土壤)

2013年7月8日 | 分类: 房产 (全局), 未分类 | 作者: 农家苦 | 307 浏览
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加拿大的草原和草原是两个不同的概念。草原省指阿尔伯塔、萨斯喀彻温、曼尼托巴
三个省,这是政治和文化上的区域。而草原则是指这三个省南部靠近美加边界的一小块地方。
 

草原并不像内蒙或青海的草原,其中有草地(Grassland)也有农地或庄稼地( Cropland);

草地又分高草区(Tallgrass)中草区(Midgrass)和牛毛草区(Fescue)。 

草原的地理地貌以萨省为代表。 萨斯卡通(Saskatoon)以北是丘陵树丛集中的地带,

农业机械摆不开,所以一般为畜牧业地带;该城以南地势平坦,农业种植的多,畜牧养殖的少。

所谓加拿大的面包篮子主要是指这里。

加拿大草原的土壤完全不能用一般教科书的分类来归类。

单纯地说黑土、白土还是黄土,其实都不是。它地表是黑色的腐殖质,

看起来像黑土,一锹深(35-45cm)下面,就是白色、黄色、红色都有的粘土。

低洼潮湿的位置不过如此,迎风坡和流水流经的位置情况更糟。

过去习惯上将土壤成份分为水分、空气、有机物和矿物质四大类,我戏称加拿大草原的土壤有五类,

多了一份石头。这是加拿大草原土壤的最大特征。土壤里的石头大约占了1/4-1/3,有岩石、鹅卵石、

碎石以及石英石等。最大的岩石可以用卡车运去城里做景观置石。土壤里面夹杂石头,大量的石头,

这种情况对大机器作业影响不明显,更换犁头勤些就是,但要用传统手工农具耕作,那真的如同

拿鸡蛋碰石头。我曾委托亲戚从国内邮寄2把中国镰刀,用来收割Hemp(工业大麻),

没用几下刀口就钝得不能再用。联合国总部的祈祷室里刻着《圣经.以赛亚书》的名句:

他们要将刀打成犁头,把枪打成镰刀加拿大草原土壤中的石头,却能

把犁头打成刀,把镰刀打成枪 

石头少的地方也不好用,雨水天烂泥一片(Running Mud),风一吹就干硬如混凝土(Concrete)。

这是土壤盐碱化严重的特征,也是土地过度开发的证据。有研究说,地球表面每形成1cm的土壤,

大约需要300年的时间。45cm深的土壤不过才形成13500年。北美大陆绝对不止就这么短的时间。

这里原先的好土、厚土都被强风和猛水给刮走了,流走了。现在的土壤现状所引出的问题,

不仅有土地休耕,水土保持问题,还有更深层次的问题,比如,加拿大政府到底是希望恢复传统农业模式,

还是继续保持现有的大机器、大工业模式的现代农业。 

 

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