131《韩熙载夜宴图》被指是间谍画作,它传递了什么信息?

忧郁的虎子 - 2018年8月6日 - 698 浏览

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“问君能有几多愁,恰似一江春水向东流”,当南唐后主李煜浅吟低唱时,大概未曾想过千余年后“雕栏玉砌”都化作了尘土,而他的臣子韩熙载的“春花秋月”却藉由一纸传神的画卷流传至今。这就是传为顾闳中所绘,现藏于故宫博物院的《韩熙载夜宴图》。

韩熙载夜宴图


该卷以写实手法再现了南唐大臣韩熙载夜宴宾客的场景,甫一展开便预示了全卷的靡靡之气,听乐、观舞、小憩、清吹和宴归5个场景依次出现,无不渲染着“公子与红妆”的声色气息。此外,各类人物——尤其是一名和尚的到场,更凸显了宾客之糅杂。

韩熙载夜宴图》(局部)


该画卷之所以名扬四海,固然因其极高的艺术价值,也因为这是一幅被诸多谜团笼罩的“暗窥及秘密之作”——由李煜指派画家潜入韩熙载府邸,目识心记后绘制而成,甚至有人直指这是一幅间谍画。

为何监视韩熙载

李煜监视韩熙载,直接原因恐怕是其肆于声色的名声。据史料记载,韩熙载为后唐同光进士,因其父被李嗣源所杀而逃至南方,投顺南唐,历事李升、李璟、李煜三主,为人风流狂逸,留下许多荒纵的故事。

                  韩熙载

比如,他领了月俸就发放给蓄养的歌伎,到经济拮据时又假装瞎子,穿破衣破鞋、持独弦琴,找她们乞食。

如此不事名检的韩熙载夜夜聚众享乐,李煜关切的是什么呢?其实并非他的“享乐”而是“聚众”——是否以夜宴结交贤达,网罗朋党?

韩熙载夜宴图》(局部)


当时,南唐政权已岌岌可危,面对日益强大的北方敌国后周的进犯,李后主一方面以财物媚悦敌国,另一方面排斥异己,把猜疑之心放在了那些由北入南的官员身上。而韩熙载正巧出身北方望族,自然列入了猜疑名单。

为何要形成画卷

如果只为了解韩熙载的一举一动,让探子监视后回来口述即可,完全无需绘制成图,李煜为何偏要多此一举呢?

对此,《五代史补》进行了解释:“(李煜)不欲直指其过,因命待诏画为图以赐之,使其自愧……”

原来,李煜是画中有话——一方面指责韩熙载私生活太过荒谬,另一方面也暗示他,一言一行无不在掌控之下,莫做结党营私等不轨之想。

韩熙载夜宴图》(局部)


劝诫之力绵长

故宫所藏的画卷上,最早的一枚收藏印是“绍勋”,系南宋左丞相史弥远。因史氏也是一位生活荒糜的臣子,因此有人认为这幅画卷有可能是宋人所摹,送给史弥远,规劝其以史为鉴。

韩熙载夜宴图


每一幅传世名画除技艺超群外,莫不因为其蕴含着引发观者常观常思的魅力。自成画后,元、明、清历代,甚至日本都有人摹写《韩熙载夜宴图》,从而存世了多卷不同的版本。无论绘制年代如何,规劝与警示目的是一致的。毕竟在每个时代与每个地方,远离声色和朋党是非都值得警醒。

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