AP课程在美国大学招生中的作用

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     自2013年春季北京大学考试研究院推出“中国大学先修课程”以来,国内越来越多的机构和个人对这种旨在实现中学教育和大学教育“无缝衔接”的课程体系产生了浓厚兴趣。一个富于挑战性的核心问题是,大学先修课程的成绩在高校招生中如何使用?如果该成绩不被大学招生部门认可,在功利主义哲学盛行的今天,即使它的意义再重大,家长和学生也不会有足够的动力参与;反之,如果该成绩在大学招生中起的作用过大——类似于以往的学科竞赛,成绩优异者可以直接保送——那将会裹挟所有的学生和家长不得不参与其中,从而加剧了学生负担。面对这一两难选择,我当初的表述是,大学先修课程的成绩在高校招生中的作用应当处于一个均衡点,在这一点上,其作用刚好大到使那些对课程有真实兴趣的学生具有足够的动力参与其中而获得相应的回报;与此同时,其作用刚好小到使那些对课程没有真实兴趣的学生因为获利不大而没有动力参与其中。这个均衡点将会有效甄别出学生是否仅仅出于功利目的而选修该课程。

     “中国大学先修课程”的理念源于美国AP课程。众所周知,AP课程在学生申请美国大学——尤其是常春藤联盟的顶尖大学——时的作用很大。事实上,AP课程发展的黄金时期正是始于常春藤联盟大学将其成绩作为入学的重要标准。  

     然而,这种作用到底体现在哪里?其在美国大学招生中的重要性究竟有多大?在实际过程中又是如何操作的?

    我曾就这些问题请教过在国内从事AP课程教学的国际学校的一些教师。有些人告诉我,AP课程成绩在美国顶尖大学录取过程中具有决定性作用。拥有AP课程成绩的学生在申请一流名校时的竞争力和被录取机会要远远大于没有AP课程成绩的学生;但也有一些人告诉我,美国大学招生时是不看学生AP课程成绩的。对于学生而言,AP课程的真正价值在于进入大学后可以抵扣相关课程的学分,由此节约了上大学的成本。这两种几乎完全矛盾的说法令我感到困惑:到底那一种是真实的?
     幸运的是,在美国访学期间,我得以有机会接触到第一手的资讯,从而详细了解了AP课程的形成及其在美国大学招生中的作用。这些信息也许对于“中国大学先修课程”的未来发展,特别是实现和高校招生的有效互动具有一定参考价值和启示。
     实际上,我从不同途径得到的两种相反的说法都是真实的:AP课程在美国大学招生中的作用至关重要;美国大学招生机构不看AP课程成绩。理解这一点的关键在于,美国AP课程有两套并行的考试体系。一套是我们所熟知的由世界上最大的私营非营利性教育考试评估机构ETS(Educational Testing Serves, 美国教育考试服务中心)组织实施的AP课程统一考试。每年5月在全球80多个国家和地区同时举行,参加考试的学生人数高达上百万。
     另一套是由具有AP课程授课资质的中学自己组织的考试,作为学生的选修课成绩计入GPA(Grade Point Average,即平均成绩点数。其计算方法一般是将每门课程的绩点乘以学分,加起来以后除以总的学分,得出平均分)系统。这种考试在学习过程中随时举行,几乎每个星期都有不同阶段的测试,其数量可能高达二十多次,每一次的成绩都会对学生最终的GPA产生影响。一般而言,大学招生机构在招生时看不到第一套考核体系的成绩,但可以看到第二套考核体系的成绩。
     因此,笼统地说美国大学招生时是否看重AP课程成绩是不准确的。以加州为例,加州大学既不要求学生必须具有选修AP课程的经历,也不要求学生一定要参加由ETS组织的AP课程考试并提供成绩。在招生过程中,大学更看重学生的诚实度——他(她)是否根据自己的实际水平提供了真实资料。
     也就是说,一个自认为没有足够能力参加AP课程学习的学生也许会比一个对自我能力没有准确认知而强行参加AP课程的学生具有更大的被录取的可能性。因此,是否参加AP课程及其考试是学生的自由和权利。学生也可以不参加课程学习而直接参加考试。从这个角度上看,可以说加州大学在招生时并不看重AP课程成绩。
     但另一方面,第二套AP课程成绩在申请加州大学九个分校时的作用非常巨大,对于伯克利分校和洛杉矶分校这样的顶尖大学来说,其影响甚至是决定性的。原因在于,加州大学在招生时非常重视学生的GPA表现——这和我们以往的认识相反,有些人错误地认为,美国大学招生时只看重综合素质而不看重学习成绩——而AP课程在提升学生GPA成绩上的效率极高。美国高中的课程一般分为普通课程、荣誉课程和AP课程。普通课程的GPA满分是4分,但单科AP课程的满分是5分。平均每门AP课程成绩可增加GPA分值0.1分。那些选修AP课程较多、成绩优秀的学生可以快速大幅度地提升自己的GPA,从而在大学招生中取得较大的竞争优势。例如,在同一所中学的两个学生,学生A没有选修任何AP课程,尽管他的成绩比较优秀,但GPA也许只有3.6,而学生B因为选修了两门AP课程,尽管他的其他课程成绩可能不如学生A优秀,但GPA却有可能达到3.8而超过学生A。
    从这个角度看,可以说加州大学在招生时非常看重AP课程成绩:
    首先,大学通过学生是否选修AP课程这一行为本身来判断学生的学习能力和未来发展潜力。在美国高中,并非所有学生都可以选修AP课程。要想参加AP课程学习,必须先要通过荣誉课程,而要想参加荣誉课程,必须先要通过普通课程。因此,能够参加AP课程学习这一事实本身已经证明了学生的优秀程度及其学习能力。
      其次,AP课程门类众多,总数达37门,与大学相关专业的联系极为紧密,因此,学生对于AP课程的选择既表明了他(她)对未来专业发展方向的兴趣,也表明了他(她)在面临不同机会时的选择能力和自我认知能力。这一点恰恰是美国顶尖大学招生时所要重点观测的目标。
    第三,从性质上说,AP课程是大学一年级的课程,其难度要远远超过中学普通课程,因此,学生是否选修AP课程,选修多少门AP课程,等等,都能体现出学生是否具有挑战困难和自我的信心与能力。大学还可以根据自身招生理念和学生所生存环境的不同对此进行不同的解读。也就是说,不一定选修AP课程越多就说明学生越优秀。最后,大学在招生中重视AP课程成绩不是直接体现的,而是通过重视学生的GPA成绩而间接重视了对其产生重大影响的AP课程成绩。
     既然AP课程在大学招生中的作用如此重要,为什么大学招生机构反而不看由ETS组织的第一套考核体系的成绩呢?加州大学招生办公室的同行告诉我,大学招生机构的行为会对中学基础教育产生影响。如果加州大学在招生时使用了AP课程统一考试成绩,就有可能会造成学生并非出于真实兴趣和意愿而仅仅为了提高入学机会而被迫学习AP课程的情况,加剧高中教育的应试倾向。事实上,近年来,随着华裔学生数量的快速增长,美国教育界已经意识到这个问题的严重性,对AP课程教学中呈现出越来越显著的应试倾向提出了严厉的批评,指责AP课程过于集中于系列事实的教学,只是让学生能够成功通过考试并顺利进入大学名校,而没有让他(她)们在研究性学习中深入解决较少的问题。
     此外,和统一考试的一次性结果相比,美国大学在招生时更看重学生的过程性表现。进入GPA系统的AP课程本身即是中学课程体系的有机组成部分,因此比较好地解决了过程性评价和一次性评价以及个性化评价和统一性评价之间的矛盾。
    如果说由ETS组织的第一套考核体系的成绩在大学招生中不起作用,学生为什么还有动力去参加考试呢?这是因为,虽然这一套成绩在大学招生时不起作用,但当学生进入大学以后,它的作用就会变得很大:如果一个学生的AP课程成绩达到了大学对相同课程的要求,就可以抵扣相应的学分。美国大学——特别是私立大学——是按照课程和学分来收取学费的,一门课程的费用大约在3000美元至6000美元之间,而参加一门AP课程的考试费用只有80多美元,因此,用AP课程成绩抵扣学分可以在相当大的程度上降低上大学的成本。近年来,由于经济不景气,美国高等教育的成本越来越高,学生选择AP课程的动力也随之增强,参加AP课程考试的人数逐年快速增长,原因即在于此。当然,这是就一般情况而言。那些最顶尖的大学,如哈佛、斯坦福等,是不允许学生用AP课程成绩来抵扣学分的;还有一些大学,如MIT,则要求学生入学后参加该课程的免修考试,合格后才可以抵扣学分。
    美国AP课程的两套考核体系比较好地解决了中学教育和大学教育的“无缝衔接”问题,同时,也在一定程度上避免了学生的功利化倾向,有利于大学有效甄别出学生选修AP课程的真实意愿和能力。但美国的高等教育体系十分复杂,大学招生又是高度自主性的事务,招多少学生,怎样招生以及招什么样的学生,等等,均由大学自行决定。因此,也有一些大学在招生时会参考第一套考核体系的成绩,并且赋予其较大权重。这从另一方面解释了为什么我所得到的答案是相互矛盾的原因。
  
     作者:秦春华,曾经担任第二十三届全国学联副主席,现担任北京大学教务部副部长、北京大学考试研究院院长。

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