生活在鸡年 我们应从鸡身上学习什么

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      进入了2017年,也就正式地迈入鸡年,在现代的鸡年里,我们咏鸡的方式,最主要的就是春联了,例如:万里春光五彩画,一声鸡韵九州春;五更鸡声声唱晓,千里马步步登高;四季花香蝴蝶舞,三春喜讯鹊鸡鸣……翻阅无数的春联就知道,歌咏鸡年最大的特点莫过于借鸡鸣迎新春了。那么,古人是如何咏鸡的呢,他们想借助鸡来表达什么呢?我们又能从中学到什么呢?

      咏鸡之吉祥丰收意

     鸡是人类普遍饲养的家禽,也是人们最熟悉的动物之一,古代有“六畜日”,初一便是鸡日,在鸡日会在鸡舍门前贴上红纸条、祈求家畜兴旺,所以鸡代表着丰收之意。另外,鸡在古时的名字叫“吉”,周亮工《书影》:“岁时记正月一日贴画鸡。今都门剪以插首,中州画以悬堂中,贵人尤好画大鸡元日张之,盖北地呼吉为鸡,俗云室上大吉也,可发一笑。”鸡和“吉”是谐音,所以,鸡也是一种吉祥的象征。唐代王驾的《社日》中写到:“鹅湖山下稻粱肥,豚栅鸡栖半掩扉。”猪满于圈,鸡栖于埘,描绘了五谷丰登、六畜兴旺的景象和节日的喜庆气氛。唐代李白在《南陵别儿童入京》中也写到:“白酒新熟山中归,黄鸡啄黍秋正肥。”黄鸡在啄着谷粒,秋天长得正肥,一片丰收的景象,一种欢快的气氛,黄鸡的肥硕寓意人们生活的吉祥顺利。

    咏鸡之高洁、壮志

    除丰收、吉祥外,鸡还有其他寓意。鸡最大的特征也就是鸡鸣了,这当然就意味着守信、准时,这是鸡的高洁品质,特别是古代的人们“日出而作,日落而息”,计时工具简陋,不能及时提醒人们,这时“金鸡报晓”的准时就给人们提供了极大的方便,也传递了守时的品德。而公鸡寓意“武”、“勇”、“好斗“、“好战”;马鸡尾羽寓意为“英武”、“英勇善战”等等,就体现了鸡的积极壮志。

    明代诗人唐寅的《画鸡》中,“头上红冠不用裁,满身雪白走将来。平生不敢轻声语,一叫千门万户开。”诗歌呈现了公鸡的冠红羽白、威风凛凛、高洁心灵、惊人鸣叫,轻易不鸣、一鸣惊人的品质和才能,作者用雄鸡的形象和品质,表达渴望像公鸡一样成为时代先驱者的伟大志向。唐代的李贺在《致酒行》中写到:“我有迷魂招不得,雄鸡一声天下白。少年心事当拿云,谁念幽寒坐呜呃。”雄鸡站在云天之间,一声鸡鸣驱散了整个黑夜。困居异乡、郁郁不得志的李贺在听了主人的开导后,突然像雄鸡亮了天一样惊醒了,激起了他的壮志豪情,作者借雄鸡之鸣寓意醍醐灌顶、恍然大悟,体现了“雄鸡”的智慧,也给了他力量和希望。我们也正需要这样的力量,在困境里能够不自怨自艾,化挫折为力量,追寻我们的梦想。

    再如宋代王安石在《登飞来峰》中写到:“飞来山上千寻塔,闻说鸡鸣见日升。”同样,作者通过鸡鸣写出了旭日东升,也希望自己能像鸡鸣一样给国家带来昌盛的胜景,表现了诗人朝气蓬勃、胸怀大志、对前途充满信心……无论是写鸡,还是写鸡鸣,都渗透着鸡身上那种高洁的品质,积极的力量。

    鸡在古代有着深厚的意蕴,它是“五德之禽”,《韩诗外传》说:“它头上有冠,是文德;足后有距能斗,是武德;敌前敢拼,是勇德;有食物招呼同类,是仁德;守夜不失时,天明报晓,是信德。”鸡象征着吉祥、丰收、喜悦,也传达着这五种品德,这也正是我们今天应该学习借鉴的:守信、仁德、勇敢、高洁、充满希望。(币拍网海外微信红包充值

 

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